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Audio Sampling

Book Description

Bringing sampling to a new generation of audio engineers and composers Audio Sampling explains how to record and create sampled instruments in a software setting. There are many things that go into creating a sampled instrument and many things that can go wrong, this book is a step by step guide through the process, from introducing sampling, where it begins to recording editing and using samples, providing much sought after detailed information on the actual process of sampling, creating sampled instruments as well as the different ways they can be used.

The software used is the NN-XT a sampler that is a part of the Reason studio software and ProTools LE, however the material discussed is applicable and can be used with any sampler.

The companion website has exclusive material including a comprehensive comparison of the different hardware software available, as well as audio examples and video clips from each stage of the process

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Dedication
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
  9. 1 Introduction to sampling
    1. 1.1 What is sampling?
      1. 1.2 A sampler survey
        1. 1.2.1 Sample players
        2. 1.2.2Hardware samplers
        3. 1.2.3 Software samplers
        4. 1.2.4 Tape-based sampling
        5. 1.2.5 Miscellaneous utilities
      2. 1.3 Basic sampler expectations
        1. 1.3.1 Basic editing features
        2. 1.3.2 Editing the audio fi le length
        3. 1.3.3 Playback direction
        4. 1.3.4 Level control
        5. 1.3.5 Pitch shifting
        6. 1.3.6 Looping
        7. 1.3.7 Capable GUI
        8. 1.3.8 Project manager
      3. 1.4 Other expectations
      4. 1.4.1 Sampler memory
      5. 1.4.2 Voice count
      6. 1.4.3 Advanced volume control
      7. 1.4.4 Pitch control
      8. 1.4.5 Spectral control
      9. 1.4.6 Velocity layers
      10. 1.4.7 Round-robin
      11. 1.4.8 Key switching
      12. 1.4.9 Scripting
    2. 1.5 Additional software sampler features
      1. 1.5.1 Low-resolution playback
      2. 1.5.2 Hold samples in memory
      3. 1.5.3 Sample streaming
    3. 1.6 Benefits to using samplers without creating your own instruments
    4. 1.7 Using samplers
      1. 1.7.1 Preproduction
      2. 1.7.2 Production
      3. 1.7.3 Live performance
      4. 1.7.4 Composition
      5. 1.7.5 Post production
    5. 1.8 Benefits to creating your own sampled instruments
      1. 1.8.1 Low-cost solution
      2. 1.8.2 Need-based solution
      3. 1.8.3 Unavailable instrument
      4. 1.8.4 Instrument preservation
      5. 1.9 Summary
  10. 2 Making connections
    1. 2.1 Signal chain
    2. 2.2 Capturing the sound source
    3. 2.3 Using microphones
      1. 2.3.1 Power
      2. 2.3.2 High pass filter
      3. 2.3.3 Pad
      4. 2.3.4 Polar patterns
    4. 2.4 Using a line input/instrument input
    5. 2.5 Using microphone preamplifi ers
    6. 2.6 Using analog-to-digital converters
    7. 2.7 Using audio interfaces
      1. 2.7.1 Expansion cards
      2. 2.7.2 USB and FireWire
      3. 2.7.3 Miscellaneous connections
      4. 2.7.4 Monitoring
    8. 2.8 Using an alternative to audio interfaces
    9. 2.9 Hooking it all together
    10. 2.10 Cable types
    11. 2.11 Balanced vs. unbalanced
    12. 2.12 Grounding
    13. 2.13 MIDI connections
    14. 2.14 General equipment tips and tricks
      1. 2.14.1 Forums
      2. 2.14.2 Patience in buying new gear
      3. 2.14.3 Find a quality reference
  11. 3 Source preparation
    1. 3.1 Choosing your source
      1. 3.1.1 Traditional instruments
      2. 3.1.2 Brand new instruments
      3. 3.1.3 Existing vs. new
      4. 3.1.4 Who should be the performer?
      5. 3.1.5 Non-acoustic sources 64 Sidebar: Pay $ Now Or Pay $$$$ Later, by Storm Gloor
      6. 3.1.6 Straight in
      7. 3.1.7 Batteries of non-pitched instruments
      8. 3.1.8 Focus is on musical instruments
    2. 3.2 Preparing your source
      1. 3.2.1 The range of your virtual instrument
      2. 3.2.2 What is the range of a kitchen cupboard?
      3. 3.2.3 Tuning issues
      4. 3.2.4 Instruments can be more or less in tune
      5. 3.2.5 Equal-tempered tuning is easiest
    3. 3.3 Understanding your source
      1. 3.3.1 Change in pressure
      2. 3.3.2 The ear
      3. 3.3.3 The speed of sound
      4. 3.3.4 Applied knowledge
    4. 3.4 Putting it all together
  12. 4 Recording the fi rst sample
    1. 4.1 Ear training
      1. 4.1.1 Goals
      2. 4.1.2 Transparent listening
        1. Why is transparent listening a goal of ear training?
        2. How is transparent listening developed?listening
      3. 4.1.3 Focused listening memory
        1. Why is focused listening important?
        2. How is focused listening developed?
      4. 4.1.4 Listening memory
        1. Why should listening memory be developed?
        2. How is listening memory developed?
      5. 4.1.5 Projected listening
        1. Why should projected listening be developed?
        2. How is projected listening developed?
      6. 4.1.6 Summary
    2. 4.2 Basic acoustic issues
    3. 4.3 Microphone choice and placement
      1. 4.3.1 Capturing source and ambience
      2. 4.3.2 Microphone placements for capturing sourceand ambience
        1. Spaced pair
        2. Blumlein
        3. MS
        4. ORTF
        5. X/Y
        6. A mix of close and distant microphone techniques
      3. 4.3.3 Eliminating the ambience
      4. 4.3.4 Microphone placements for eliminating ambience
      5. 4.3.5 Surround-sound possibilities
    4. 4.4 The recording session
      1. 4.4.1 Preparation
        1. How?
        2. Where?
        3. When?
      2. 4.4.2 Setup for session
      3. 4.4.3 Have a plan in place
      4. 4.4.4 File management
      5. 4.4.5 Be critical of everything
    5. 4.5 Tidying up
  13. 5 Sample editing
    1. 5.1 Editing styles
      1. 5.1.1 Independent editing style
      2. 5.1.2 Integrated editing style
      3. 5.1.3 Combination editing style
    2. 5.2 Basic editing
      1. 5.2.1 Editing in the sampler
    3. 5.3 Advanced editing in the digital audio workstation
    4. 5.4 Adding additional effects/processors
      1. 5.4.1 Time effects
        1. Delay
        2. Various delay-based effects
        3. Reverb
      2. 5.4.2 Frequency processors
        1. Filters and equalizers
        2. Application of EQ
        3. Pitch correction
        4. Distortion processors
        5. Application of distortion processors
      3. 5.4.3 Dynamics processors
        1. Compressor
        2. Application of compressors
        3. Limiter
        4. Application of limiters
        5. Gate
        6. Applications of gates
        7. Expander
        8. DeEsser
        9. Multiband compressor
        10. Application of multiband compressors
      4. 5.4.4 Applying effects and processors
      5. 5.4.5 Export settings
  14. 6 Creating the instrument
    1. 6.1 Importing files into zones
      1. 6.1.1 Setting the root note
      2. 6.1.2 Setting the zone outputs
      3. 6.1.3 Zone overlap
        1. Velocity ranges
        2. Fades between ranges
      4. 6.1.4 Using the round-robin function
      5. 6.1.5 Looping
      6. 6.1.6 Envelopes
    2. 6.2 Advanced mapping
      1. 6.2.1 Key switching
      2. 6.2.2 Scripting
    3. 6.3 Fine-tuning
    4. 6.4 An example of mapping
    5. 6.5 Additional sampler features
      1. 6.5.1 Flexible envelopes
      2. 6.5.2 Filter
      3. 6.5.3 LFOs
      4. 6.5.4 Built-in effects and processors
  15. 7 Using samples
    1. 7.1 MIDI
      1. 7.1.1 Overview
      2. 7.1.2 Connections
      3. 7.1.3 Interfaces
      4. 7.1.4 MIDI data
      5. 7.1.5 Controllers
    2. 7.2 Musical instrumentation
      1. 7.2.1 Emulation
      2. 7.2.2 Emulation
      3. 7.2.3 Realization
      4. 7.2.4 Arrangement
      5. 7.2.5 Composition
    3. 7.3 Composition and orchestration
      1. 7.3.1 The plan
      2. 7.3.2 The prescription
    4. 7.4 Musical terms
      1. 7.4.1 Melody
      2. 7.4.2 Harmony
      3. 7.4.3 Rhythm
      4. 7.4.4 Texture
      5. 7.4.5 Motif (or motive)
      6. 7.4.6 Phrase
      7. 7.4.7 Form
    5. 7.5 Compositional techniques
      1. 7.5.1 Rhythmic expansion
      2. 7.5.2 Rhythmic contraction
      3. 7.5.3 Intervallic expansion
      4. 7.5.4 Intervallic contraction
      5. 7.5.5 Inversion
      6. 7.5.6 Retrograde
      7. 7.5.7 Sequence
      8. 7.5.8 Imitation
      9. 7.5.9 Repetition
    6. 7.6 Performance characteristics
      1. 7.6.1 Vibrato
      2. 7.6.2 Tremolo
      3. 7.6.3 Articulation
      4. 7.6.4 Dynamics
    7. 7.7 MIDI performance control
      1. 7.7.1 Note on/off
      2. 7.7.2 Note number
      3. 7.7.4 After-touch
      4. 7.7.5 Breath control
      5. 7.7.6 Patch change
      6. 7.7.7 DSP
    8. 7.8 Observations
      1. 7.8.1 Observations about timbre
      2. 7.8.2 Observations about melodic development
      3. 7.8.3 Observations about melodic motion
      4. 7.8.4 Observations about layering sounds
      5. 7.8.5 Observations about the string ensemble
    9. 7.9 Bibliography
  16. 8 Examining the roots of sampling
    1. 8.1 Timetable of processes
      1. 8.1.1 1950s–1960s
        1. Classic studio technique
        2. Musique concrete
        3. Electronic music (Elektronische Musik)
      2. 8.1.2 1970s–1980s
        1. Digital samples
      3. 8.1.3 1990s
        1. Wavetable synthesis
    2. 8.2 Timetable of historically innovative systems
      1. 8.2.1 Analog devices
      2. 8.2.2 Digital devices
        1. 1970s–2000s
    3. 8.3 Bibliography
  17. 9 Thoughts on the future of sampling
    1. 9.1 Modeling and convolution meet sampling
    2. 9.2 Future uses of sampling
    3. 9.3 Summary
  18. Index