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Audio Production Worktext, 7th Edition

Book Description

Providing insight into the impact media convergence has had on the radio industry, this new edition delivers an excellent introduction to the modern radio production studio, the equipment found in that studio, and the basic techniques needed to accomplish radio production work.

New chapters addressing the basics of field recording, production planning, and sound for video are included, as well as a renewed emphasis on not just radio production, but audio production.

Featuring a worktext format tailored for both students and teachers, self-study questions, hands-on projects, and a CD with project material, quizzes, and demonstrations of key concepts, this book offers a solid foundation for anyone who wishes to know more about radio/audio equipment and production techniques.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Chapter 1 Production Planning
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 The Idea
    3. 1.3 Goals and Objectives
    4. 1.4 The Target Audience
    5. 1.5 Style
    6. 1.6 Production Personnel
    7. 1.7 Production Elements
    8. Production Tip 1A—Pick Any Two
      1. 1.8 The Script
      2. 1.9 Paperwork
      3. 1.10 The Importance of Voice
    9. Production Tip 1B—Copy Marking
      1. 1.11 Equipment and Facilities
      2. 1.12 Laws
      3. 1.13 Ethics
      4. 1.14 Conclusion
    10. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    11. Projects
      1. Project 1—Undertake Production Planning for a 15-Minute Interview Show
      2. Project 2—Assess Your Skills
  9. Chapter 2 The Studio Environment
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 The Audio Chain
    3. 2.3 The Studio Layout
    4. 2.4 Production Studio Furniture
    5. 2.5 Studio Sound Considerations
    6. 2.6 Studio Construction Materials
    7. 2.7 Studio Size and Shape
    8. 2.8 Studio Aesthetics
    9. Production Tip 2A—Static Electricity
      1. 2.9 On-Air/Recording Lights
      2. 2.10 Hand Signals
      3. 2.11 Noise and Distortion
      4. 2.12 Is it a Sound Signal or an Audio Signal?
      5. 2.13 Sound Defined
      6. 2.14 Key Characteristics of Sound Waves
      7. 2.15 Frequency Response
      8. 2.16 Conclusion
    10. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    11. Projects
      1. Project 1—Tour an Audio Facility and Write a Report Describing It
      2. Project 2—Redesign Your Production Studio
      3. Project 3—Draw an Audio Chain Flowchart for Your Production Studio
  10. Chapter 3 Digital Audio Production
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 The Analog Roots of Digital Production
    3. 3.3 The Digital Process
    4. 3.4 Reasons for Editing
    5. 3.5 Desktop Audio Production: The Digital Audio Editor
    6. Production Tip 3A—Audacity
      1. 3.6 Digital Audio Workstations and Other Digital Editors
      2. 3.7 Strong Points and Weak Points of Digital Production
    7. Production Tip 3B—Maintaining Digital Equipment
      1. 3.8 Audio Synchronization
      2. 3.9 Latency Issues
      3. 3.10 Digital Audio Editing
      4. 3.11 Multitrack Editing Techniques
      5. 3.12 Multitrack Voice Effects
      6. 3.13 Track Sheets
      7. 3.14 The Mix Down
      8. 3.15 Multitrack Spot Production
      9. 3.16 Conclusion
    8. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    9. Projects
      1. Project 1—Undertake Digital Audio Editing
      2. Project 2—Using a Digital Audio Editor, Build a Short Music Bed and Record a “Voice and Music Bed” Spot
      3. Project 3—Write and Record a 60-Second “Concert Commercial”
      4. Project 4—Write and Record a Report that Compares Various Recording/Editing Software Programs
  11. Chapter 4 Microphones
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Classifying Microphones
    3. 4.3 Dynamic Microphones
    4. 4.4 Condenser Microphones
    5. 4.5 Microphone Pickup Patterns
    6. 4.6 The Omnidirectional Pickup Pattern
    7. 4.7 The Cardioid Pickup Pattern
    8. 4.8 Polar Response Patterns
    9. 4.9 Impedance of Microphones
    10. 4.10 Sensitivity of Microphones
    11. 4.11 Proximity Effect and Bass Roll-Off
    12. 4.12 Microphone Feedback
    13. 4.13 Multiple-Microphone Interference
    14. 4.14 Stereo
    15. 4.15 Stereo Miking Techniques
    16. 4.16 Surround Sound
    17. 4.17 Special Purpose and Other Types of Microphones
    18. 4.18 Microphone Accessories
    19. 4.19 Microphone Usage
    20. Production Tip 4A—Microphone-to-Mouth Relationship and Setting Levels
      1. 4.20 Conclusion
    21. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    22. Projects
      1. Project 1—Position Microphones in Various Ways to Create Different Effects
      2. Project 2—With Several Other Students, Make a Recording Using Stereo Miking Techniques
      3. Project 3—Compare Sound from Different Types of Microphones
      4. Project 4—Diagram/Apply Miking Techniques to Various On-Campus or Local Sporting Events
  12. Chapter 5 The Audio Console
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 The Digital Audio Console
    3. 5.3 Audio Console Functions
    4. 5.4 Computers and Audio Consoles
    5. 5.5 Basic Audio Console Components
    6. 5.6 Input Selectors
    7. 5.7 Input Volume Control
    8. 5.8 Monitoring: Speakers and Headphones
    9. 5.9 Cue
    10. 5.10 VU Meters
    11. 5.11 Output Selectors
    12. 5.12 Output Volume Control
    13. 5.13 Remote Starts, Clocks, and Timers
    14. 5.14 Equalizers and Pan Pots
    15. 5.15 Other Features
    16. Production Tip 5A—Manipulating Faders
      1. 5.16 Sound Transitions and Endings
      2. 5.17 Conclusion
    17. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    18. Projects
      1. Project 1—Learn To Operate an Audio Console
      2. Project 2—Diagram and Label an Audio Board
      3. Project 3—Record a Two-Voice Commercial
  13. Chapter 6 Digital Audio Players/Recorders
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 The CD Player
    3. 6.3 CDs and Care of CDs
    4. 6.4 The CD Recorder
    5. 6.5 Data Compression
    6. 6.6 Compactflash and Other Digital Recorders
    7. 6.7 Storage
    8. 6.8 MP3/Portable Audio Players
    9. 6.9 Digital Distribution Networks
    10. 6.10 Conclusion
    11. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    12. Projects
      1. Project 1—Record a Public Service Announcement that Uses a Sound Effect
      2. Project 2—Prepare a Report on a Digital Player/Recorder that Is Not Discussed in This Chapter
      3. Project 3—Play and Record Several CD Selections
      4. Project 4—Record a 5-minute Interview with a Classmate and Edit the Interview to 3 Minutes, Using a Portable Digital Recording Device
  14. Chapter 7 Monitor Speakers and Studio Accessories
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Types of Speakers
    3. 7.3 Basic Speaker System Components
    4. 7.4 Speaker System Enclosure Designs
    5. 7.5 Speaker Sound Qualities
    6. 7.6 Speaker Placement
    7. 7.7 Phase and Channel Orientation
    8. 7.8 Monitor Amplifiers
    9. 7.9 Speaker Sensitivity
    10. 7.10 Headphones
    11. 7.11 Hardwiring and Patching
    12. 7.12 Common Audio Connectors
    13. 7.13 Other Connectors and Connector Adapters
    14. 7.14 Balanced and Unbalanced Lines
    15. 7.15 Microphone, Line, and Speaker Levels
    16. 7.16 Studio Timers
    17. 7.17 Telephone Interface
    18. 7.18 Conclusion
    19. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    20. Projects
      1. Project 1—Compare Speaker/Listener Placement
      2. Project 2—Identify Common Connectors Found in the Audio Production Studio
  15. Chapter 8 Signal Processing Equipment
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Why Use Signal Processing Effects?
    3. 8.3 Software or Black Box Signal Processing
    4. 8.4 Equalizers
    5. 8.5 The Graphic Equalizer
    6. 8.6 The Parametric Equalizer
    7. 8.7 Audio Filters
    8. 8.8 Noise Reduction
    9. 8.9 Reverb and Digital Delay
    10. Production Tip 8A—World Wide Web Effects
      1. 8.10 Dynamic Range
      2. 8.11 Compressors, Expanders, and Noise Gates
      3. 8.12 Limiters
      4. 8.13 Other Signal Processors
      5. 8.14 Multi-Effects Processors
      6. 8.15 Conclusion
    11. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    12. Projects
      1. Project 1—Record a Commercial Spot that Uses a Signal Processing Effect
      2. Project 2—Use Multitrack Recording to Create a Chorusing Effect
      3. Project 3—Restore an Audio Clip Using Noise-Reduction Software
  16. Chapter 9 Production Situations
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Producing Commercials
    3. Production Tip 9A—Music Punctuators
      1. 9.3 Enhancing Image
      2. 9.4 Announcing Music
      3. 9.5 Recording Music
    4. Production Tip 9B—Miking a Guitar
      1. 9.6 Preparing and Announcing News
      2. 9.7 Reporting Sports, Traffic, and Weather
      3. 9.8 Hosting Talk Shows
      4. 9.9 Performing Drama and Variety
      5. 9.10 Conclusion
    5. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    6. Projects
      1. Project 1—Record an Air-Check Tape
      2. Project 2—Record a 5-Minute Radio Interview Show in Which You Are the Interviewer
  17. Chapter 10 Location Sound Recording
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Types of Field Production
    3. 10.3 Common Location Sound Problems
    4. Production Tip 10A—How to Get Rid of a Hum
      1. 10.4 Site Planning for Location Recording
      2. 10.5 Using Microphones
      3. 10.6 Using Recorders
      4. 10.7 Using Mixers
      5. 10.8 Using Headphones
      6. 10.9 Getting the Signal Back to the Studio
      7. 10.10 Handling Vehicles
      8. 10.11 Providing for Your Own Needs
    5. Production Tip 10B—How to Pack a Survival Bag
      1. 10.12 Postproduction Concerns for Location Recording
      2. 10.13 Conclusion
    6. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    7. Projects
      1. Project 1—Listen and Plan for Sounds
      2. Project 2—Record Atmosphere Sound, Room Tone, and Walla Walla
  18. Chapter 11 Sound Production for the Visual Media
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 The Importance of Sound to a Visual Production
    3. 11.3 The Need to Accommodate the Picture
    4. 11.4 Recording Speech
    5. 11.5 The Fishpole
    6. Production Tip 11A—Holding a Fishpole
      1. 11.6 The Lavaliere
      2. 11.7 Other Forms of Microphone Positioning
      3. 11.8 Continuity and Perspective
      4. 11.9 The Recording Procedure
    7. Production Tip 11B—Recording with Your Eyes Shut
      1. 11.10 Recording Sound Effects
      2. 11.11 Recording Ambient Sounds
      3. 11.12 Recording Music
      4. 11.13 Recording ADR
      5. 11.14 Recording Foley
      6. 11.15 Recording Voice-Overs
      7. 11.16 Postproduction Considerations
      8. 11.17 Final Mix
      9. 11.18 Conclusions
    8. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    9. Projects
      1. Project 1—Determine the Importance of Sound and Picture
      2. Project 2—Record Sound for a Video Project
  19. Chapter 12 Internet Radio and Other Distribution Platforms
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. Production Tip 12A—Love Manifests to Digital
      1. 12.2 Web Pages
      2. 12.3 Overview of the Audio Process for Streaming
      3. 12.4 Encoders
      4. 12.5 Servers
      5. 12.6 Playback Software and Apps
      6. 12.7 Software Options
    3. Production Tip 12B—Internet Audience and On-Air Talent Interaction
      1. 12.8 On-Demand Files and Podcasting
      2. 12.9 Building a Home Studio for Internet Audio Production
      3. 12.10 Copyright
      4. 12.11 Internet Radio Station Listing Sites
      5. 12.12 Other Distribution Means
      6. 12.13 Satellite Radio
      7. 12.14 Cable and Satellite TV Radio
      8. 12.15 Over-the-Air Broadcasting
      9. 12.16 HD Radio
      10. 12.17 Conclusion
    4. Self-Study
      1. Questions
      2. Answers
    5. Projects
      1. Project 1—Report on the Differences and Similarities among Six Radio Station Websites
      2. Project 2—Tour a Broadcast Radio Station Transmitting Facility
      3. Project 3—See What You Have and What You Need to Build Your Own Audio Recording and Editing Facility in Your Home or Dorm Room
  20. Glossary
  21. Appendix Analog and Digital Audio Equipment
    1. A.1 Introduction
    2. A.2 Turntables
    3. A.3 Turntable Use
    4. A.4 Reel-to-Reel Audio Tape Recorders
    5. A.5 Reel-to-Reel Recorder Use
    6. Production Tip A.A—Sel Sync
      1. A.6 Cassette Tape Recorders
      2. A.7 Cassette Recorder Use
      3. A.8 Cartridge Tape Recorders
      4. A.9 Cartridge Recorder Use
      5. A.10 Tape-Based Digital Recorders
      6. A.11 Analog Tape Editing Tools
      7. A.12 Making Edits
      8. A.13 Analog Audio Consoles
      9. A.14 Analog Audio Console Use
      10. A.15 The MD Recorder/Player
      11. A.16 The MiniDisc
      12. A.17 Conclusion
  22. Index