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Audio Engineering: Know It All

Book Description

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

Part I Fundamentals of Sound

Chapter 1 Audio Principles
Chapter 2. Measurement
Chapter 3 Acoustic Environment

II. Audio Electronics

Chapter 4 Components
Chapter 5 Power supply design


III Preamplifiers and Amplifiers

Chapter 6 Introduction to Audio Amplification
CHAPTER 7 Preamplifiers and input signals
Chapter 8 Interfacing and processing
Chapter 9 Audio amplifiers
Chapter 10 Audio amplifier
Chapter 11. Valve (tube-based) amplifiers
Chapter 12 Negative feedback
Chapter 13 Noise and grounding

Part IV Digital Audio

Chapter 14 Digital audio fundamentals
Chapter 15 Representation of Audio Signals
Chapter 16.Compact disc
Chapter 17 Digital audio recording basics
Chapter 18 Digital audio interfaces
Chapter 19 Data compression
Chapter 20 Digital audio production
Chapter 21 Other Digital Audio Devices

V. Microphone and Loudspeaker Technology
Chapter 22 Microphone technology
Chapter 23 Loudspeakers
Chapter 24 Loudspeaker enclosures
Chapter 25 Headphones

Part VI. Sound Reproduction Systems

Chapter 26 Tape Recording
Chapter 27 Recording consoles
Chapter 28 Video synchronization
Chapter 29 Room acoustics

Part VII Audio Test and Measurement

CHAPTER 30 Fundamentals and instruments

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors
• Hot topics covered
• The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Brief Table of Contents
  3. Table of Contents
  4. List of Figures
  5. List of Tables
  6. About the Authors
  7. Part I. Fundamentals of Sound
    1. Chapter 1. Audio Principles
      1. 1.1. The Physics of Sound
      2. 1.2. Wavelength
      3. 1.3. Periodic and Aperiodic Signals
      4. 1.4. Sound and the Ear
      5. 1.5. The Cochlea
      6. 1.6. Mental Processes
      7. 1.7. Level and Loudness
      8. 1.8. Frequency Discrimination
      9. 1.9. Frequency Response and Linearity
      10. 1.10. The Sine Wave
      11. 1.11. Root Mean Square Measurements
      12. 1.12. The Decibel
      13. 1.13. Audio Level Metering
    2. Chapter 2. Measurement
      1. 2.1. Concepts Underlying the Decibel and its Use in Sound Systems
      2. 2.2. Measuring Electrical Power
      3. 2.3. Expressing Power as an Audio Level
      4. 2.4. Conventional Practice
      5. 2.5. The Decibel in Acoustics—LP, LW, and LI
      6. 2.6. Acoustic Intensity Level (LI), Acoustic Power Level (LW), and Acoustic Pressure Level (LP)
      7. 2.7. Inverse Square Law
      8. 2.8. Directivity Factor
      9. 2.9. Ohm’s Law
      10. 2.10. A Decibel is a Decibel is a Decibel
      11. 2.11. Older References
      12. 2.12. The Equivalent Level (LEQ) in Noise Measurements
      13. 2.13. Combining Decibels
      14. 2.14. Combining Voltage
      15. 2.15. Using the Log Charts
      16. 2.16. Finding the Logarithm of a Number to Any Base
      17. 2.17. Semitone Intervals
      18. 2.18. System Gain Changes
      19. 2.19. The VU and the Volume Indicator Instrument
      20. 2.20. Calculating the Number of Decades in a Frequency Span
      21. 2.21. Deflection of the Eardrum at Various Sound Levels
      22. 2.22. The Phon
      23. 2.23. The Tempered Scale
      24. 2.24. Measuring Distortion
      25. 2.25. The Acoustical Meaning of Harmonic Distortion
      26. 2.26. Playback Systems in Studios
      27. 2.27. Decibels and Percentages
      28. 2.28. Summary
      29. Uncited Reference
    3. Chapter 3. Acoustic Environment
      1. 3.1. The Acoustic Environment
      2. 3.2. Inverse Square Law
      3. 3.3. Atmospheric Absorption
      4. 3.4. Velocity of Sound
      5. 3.5. Temperature-Dependent Velocity
      6. 3.6. The Effect of Altitude on the Velocity of Sound in Air
      7. 3.7. Typical Wavelengths
      8. 3.8. Doppler Effect
      9. 3.9. Reflection and Refraction
      10. 3.10. Effect of a Space Heater on Flutter Echo
      11. 3.11. Absorption
      12. 3.12. Classifying Sound Fields
      13. 3.13. The Acoustic Environment Indoors
      14. 3.14. Conclusion
      15. Further Reading
  8. Part II. Audio Electronics
    1. Chapter 4. Components
      1. 4.1. Building Block Components
    2. Chapter 5. Power Supply Design
      1. 5.1. High Power Systems
      2. 5.2. Solid-State Rectifiers
      3. 5.3. Music Power
      4. 5.4. Influence of Signal Type on Power Supply Design
      5. 5.5. High Current Power Supply Systems
      6. 5.6. Half-Wave and Full-Wave Rectification
      7. 5.7. Direct Current Supply Line Ripple Rejection
      8. 5.8. Voltage Regulator Systems
      9. 5.9. Series Regulator Layouts
      10. 5.10. Overcurrent Protection
      11. 5.11. Integrated Circuit (Three Terminals) Voltage Regulator ICs
      12. 5.12. Typical Contemporary Commercial Practice
      13. 5.13. Battery Supplies
      14. 5.14. Switch-Mode Power Supplies
  9. Part III. Preamplifiers and Amplifiers
    1. Chapter 6. Introduction to Audio Amplification
    2. Chapter 7. Preamplifiers and Input Signals
      1. 7.1. Requirements
      2. 7.2. Signal Voltage and Impedance Levels
      3. 7.3. Gramophone Pick-Up Inputs
      4. 7.4. Input Circuitry
      5. 7.5. Moving Coil Pick-up Head Amplifier Design
      6. 7.6. Circuit Arrangements
      7. 7.7. Input Connections
      8. 7.8. Input Switching
      9. Voltage amplifiers and controls
      10. 7.9. Preamplifier Stages
      11. 7.10. Linearity
      12. 7.11. Noise Levels
      13. 7.12. Output Voltage Characteristics
      14. 7.13. Voltage Amplifier Design
      15. 7.14. Constant-Current Sources and “Current Mirrors”
      16. 7.15. Performance Standards
      17. 7.16. Audibility of Distortion
      18. 7.17. General Design Considerations
      19. 7.18. Controls
    3. Chapter 8. Interfacing and Processing
      1. 8.1. The Input
      2. 8.2. Radio Frequency Filtration
      3. 8.3. Balanced Input
      4. 8.4. Subsonic Protection and High-Pass Filtering
      5. 8.5. Damage Protection
      6. 8.6. What Are Process Functions?
      7. 8.7. Computer Control
      8. Further Reading
    4. Chapter 9. Audio Amplifiers
      1. 9.1. Junction Transistors
      2. 9.2. Control of Operating Bias
      3. 9.3. Stage Gain
      4. 9.4. Basic Junction Transistor Circuit Configurations
      5. 9.5. Emitter–Follower Systems
      6. 9.6. Thermal Dissipation Limits
      7. 9.7. Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs)
      8. 9.8. Insulated Gate FETs (MOSFETs)
      9. 9.9. Power BJTs vs Power MOSFETs as Amplifier Output Devices
      10. 9.10. U and D MOSFETs
      11. 9.11. Useful Circuit Components
      12. 9.12. Circuit Oddments
      13. 9.13. Slew Rate Limiting
      14. Uncited Reference
    5. Chapter 10. Audio Amplifier Performance
      1. 10.1. A Brief History of Amplifiers
      2. 10.2. Amplifier Architectures
      3. 10.3. The Three-Stage Architecture
      4. 10.4. Power Amplifier Classes
      5. 10.5. AC- and DC-Coupled Amplifiers
      6. 10.6. Negative Feedback in Power Amplifiers
    6. Chapter 11. Valve (Tube-Based) Amplifiers
      1. 11.1. Valves or Vacuum Tubes
      2. 11.2. Solid-State Devices
      3. 11.3. Valve Audio Amplifier Layouts
      4. 11.4. Single-Ended Versus Push–Pull Operation
      5. 11.5. Phase Splitters
      6. 11.6. Output Stages
      7. 11.7. Output (Load-Matching) Transformer
      8. 11.8. Effect of Output Load Impedance
      9. 11.9. Available Output Power
    7. Chapter 12. Negative Feedback
      1. 12.1. Amplifier Stability and Negative Feedback
      2. 12.2. Maximizing Negative Feedback
      3. 12.3. Maximizing Linearity Before Feedback
      4. Further Reading
    8. Chapter 13. Noise and Grounding
      1. 13.1. Audio Amplifier Printed Circuit Board Design
      2. 13.2. Amplifier Grounding
      3. 13.3. Ground Loops: How They Work and How to Deal with Them
      4. 13.4. Class I and Class II
      5. 13.5. Mechanical Layout and Design Considerations
  10. Part IV. Digital Audio
    1. Chapter 14. Digital Audio Fundamentals
      1. 14.1. Audio as Data
      2. 14.2. What is an Audio Signal?
      3. 14.3. Why Binary?
      4. 14.4. Why Digital?
      5. 14.5. Some Digital Audio Processes Outlined
      6. 14.6. Time Compression and Expansion
      7. 14.7. Error Correction and Concealment
      8. 14.8. Channel Coding
      9. 14.9. Audio Compression
      10. 14.10. Disk-Based Recording
      11. 14.11. Rotary Head Digital Recorders
      12. 14.12. Digital Audio Broadcasting
      13. 14.13. Networks
    2. Chapter 15. Representation of Audio Signals
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. Analogue and Digital
      3. 15.3. Elementary Logical Processes
      4. 15.4. The Significance of Bits and Bobs
      5. 15.5. Transmitting Digital Signals
      6. 15.6. The Analogue Audio Waveform
      7. 15.7. Arithmetic
      8. 15.8. Digital Filtering
      9. 15.9. Other Binary Operations
      10. 15.10. Sampling and Quantizing
      11. 15.11. Transform and Masking Coders
      12. References
    3. Chapter 16. Compact Disc
      1. 16.1. Problems with Digital Encoding
      2. 16.2. The Record-Replay System
      3. 16.3. The Replay System
      4. 16.4. Error Correction
    4. Chapter 17. Digital Audio Recording Basics
      1. 17.1. Types of Media
      2. 17.2. Recording Media Compared
      3. 17.3. Some Digital Audio Processes Outlined
      4. 17.4. Hard Disc Recorders
      5. 17.5. The PCM Adaptor
      6. 17.6. An Open Reel Digital Recorder
      7. 17.7. Rotary Head Digital Recorders
      8. 17.8. Digital Compact Cassette
      9. 17.9. Editing Digital Audio Tape
      10. Uncited Reference
    5. Chapter 18. Digital Audio Interfaces
      1. 18.1. Digital Audio Interfaces
    6. Chapter 19. Data Compression
      1. 19.1. Lossless Compression
      2. 19.2. Intermediate Compression Systems
      3. 19.3. Psychoacoustic Masking Systems
      4. 19.4. MPEG Layer 1 Compression (PASC)
      5. 19.5. MPEG Layer 2 Audio Coding (MUSICAM)
      6. 19.6. MPEG Layer 3
      7. 19.7. MPEG-4
      8. 19.8. Digital Audio Production
    7. Chapter 20. Digital Audio Production
      1. 20.1. Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs)
      2. 20.2. Audio Data Files
      3. 20.3. Sound Cards
      4. 20.4. PCI Bus Versus ISA Bus
      5. 20.5. Disks and Other Peripheral Hardware
      6. 20.6. Hard Drive Interface Standards
      7. 20.7. Digital Noise Generation—Chain Code Generators
      8. Uncited Reference
    8. Chapter 21. Other Digital Audio Devices
      1. 21.1. Video Recorders
      2. 21.2. High Definition Compatible Digital (HDCD)
      3. 21.3. CD Writers
      4. 21.4. MPEG Systems
      5. 21.5. MP3
      6. 21.6. Transcribing a Recording by Computer
      7. 21.7. WAV Onward
      8. 21.8. DAM CD
      9. 21.9. DVD and Audio
  11. Part V. Microphone and Loudspeaker Technology
    1. Chapter 22. Microphone Technology
      1. 22.1. Microphone Sensitivity
      2. 22.2. Microphone Selection
      3. 22.3. Nature of Response and Directional Characteristics
      4. 22.4. Wireless Microphones
      5. 22.5. Microphone Connectors, Cables, and Phantom Power
      6. 22.6. Measurement Microphones
      7. Further Reading
    2. Chapter 23. Loudspeakers
      1. 23.1. Radiation of Sound
      2. 23.2. Characteristic Impedance
      3. 23.3. Radiation Impedance
      4. 23.4. Radiation from a Piston
      5. 23.5. Directivity
      6. 23.6. Sound Pressure Produced at Distance r
      7. 23.7. Electrical Analogue
      8. 23.8. Diaphragm/Suspension Assembly
      9. 23.9. Diaphragm Size
      10. 23.10. Diaphragm Profile
      11. 23.11. Straight-Sided Cones
      12. 23.12. Material
      13. 23.13. Soft Domes
      14. 23.14. Suspensions
      15. 23.15. Voice Coil
      16. 23.16. Moving Coil Loudspeaker
      17. 23.17. Motional Impedance
    3. Chapter 24. Loudspeaker Enclosures
      1. 24.1. Loudspeakers
      2. 24.2. The Interrelation of Components
    4. Chapter 25. Headphones
      1. 25.1. A Brief History
      2. 25.2. Pros and Cons of Headphone Listening
      3. 25.3. Headphone Types
      4. 25.4. Basic Headphone Types
      5. 25.5. Measuring Headphones
      6. 25.6. The Future
  12. Part VI. Sound Reproduction Systems
    1. Chapter 26. Tape Recording
      1. 26.1. Introduction
      2. 26.2. Magnetic Theory
      3. 26.3. The Physics of Magnetic Recording
      4. 26.4. Bias
      5. 26.5. Equalization
      6. 26.6. Tape Speed
      7. 26.7. Speed Stability
      8. 26.8. Recording Formats—Analogue Machines
    2. Chapter 27. Recording Consoles
      1. 27.1. Introduction
      2. 27.2. Standard Levels and Level Meters
      3. 27.3. Standard Operating Levels and Line-Up Tones
      4. 27.4. Digital Line-Up
      5. 27.5. Sound Mixer Architecture and Circuit Blocks
      6. 27.6. Audio Mixer Circuitry
      7. 27.7. Mixer Automation
      8. 27.8. Digital Consoles
      9. Reference
    3. Chapter 28. Video Synchronization
      1. 28.1. Introduction
      2. 28.2. Persistence of Vision
      3. 28.3. Cathode Ray Tube and Raster Scanning
      4. 28.4. Television Signal
      5. 28.5. Color Perception
      6. 28.6. Color Television
      7. 28.7. Analogue Video Interfaces
      8. 28.8. Digital Video
      9. 28.9. Embedded Digital Audio in the Digital Video Interface
      10. 28.10. Time Code
    4. Chapter 29. Room Acoustics
      1. 29.1. Introduction
      2. 29.2. Noise Control
      3. 29.3. Studio and Control Room Acoustics
  13. Part VII. Audio Test and Measurement
    1. Chapter 30. Fundamentals and Instruments
      1. 30.1. Instrument Types
      2. 30.2. Signal Generators
      3. 30.3. Alternative Waveform Types
      4. 30.4. Distortion Measurement
  14. Index
    1. SYMBOL
    2. A
    3. B
    4. C
    5. D
    6. E
    7. F
    8. G
    9. H
    10. I
    11. J
    12. L
    13. M
    14. N
    15. O
    16. P
    17. Q
    18. R
    19. S
    20. T
    21. U
    22. V
    23. W
    24. X