You are previewing Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Second Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Second Edition

Book Description

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) is a well-established elemental analysis technology. It remains one of the most popular and cost-effective analysis tools used by chemists, physicists, and materials scientists worldwide. This second edition offers a concise introduction to AAS concepts, essential methodologies, and important applications. It has been comprehensively updated for the latest advances in AAS techniques and instruments. Highlights include: • Overviews of all basic atomic absorption concepts, including atomic line spectra theory, common sampling techniques, radiation sources, spectrometers, and detectors; • Coverage of hydride generation, cold vapor generation and electrothermal generation, as well as flow injection analysis (FIA) to enhance AAS analytical performance; • New sections on troubleshooting and quality control guidelines, chemometrics, and emerging fields of applications, including analysis of nanoparticles; and • Selected examples of standards for chemical analysis.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1. An Introduction to Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
    1. 1.1 Basic Interactions of Electromagnetic Radiation with Atoms for Chemical Analysis
    2. 1.2 Atomic Line Spectra and Their Origin
    3. 1.3 Atomic Line Characteristics
    4. 1.4 Atomic Line Spectral Width
      1. 1.4.1 Natural Broadening of Lines
      2. 1.4.2 Doppler Broadening
      3. 1.4.3 Lorentz Broadening
      4. 1.4.4 Self-Absorption Effects
      5. 1.4.5 Other Broadening Processes
    5. 1.5 A Comparative Overview of Analytical Atomic Spectrometric Techniques
      1. 1.5.1 Dissolved Sample Analysis Techniques
      2. 1.5.2 Direct Solid Analysis Techniques
  8. Chapter 2. Theory and Basic Concepts in Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    1. 2.1 General Introduction
    2. 2.2 The Basic Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiment
    3. 2.3 The Absorption Coefficient Concept
    4. 2.4 Quantitative Analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    5. 2.5 Interferences in Flame Analytical Atomic Spectrometry Techniques
      1. 2.5.1 Spectral Interferences
      2. 2.5.2 Physical (Transport) Interferences
      3. 2.5.3 Chemical Interferences
      4. 2.5.4 Ionization Interferences
      5. 2.5.5 Temperature Variations in the Atomizer
      6. 2.5.6 Light Scattering and Unspecific Absorptions
      7. 2.5.7 Quenching of the Fluorescence
    6. 2.6 Analytical Performance Characteristics of AAS
      1. 2.6.1 Sensitivity and Detection Limits
      2. 2.6.2 Selectivity of the Three Flame-Based Techniques
      3. 2.6.3 Accuracy and Precision
      4. 2.6.4 Analytical Linear Range
      5. 2.6.5 Versatility and Sample Throughput
      6. 2.6.7 Robustness and Availability of Well-Proven Methodologies
  9. Chapter 3. Basic Components of Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Instruments
    1. 3.1 Introduction: Single-Beam and Double-Beam Instruments
    2. 3.2 Primary Radiation Sources
      1. 3.2.1 Hollow Cathode Lamps
        1. 3.2.1.1 Details of the Components of a HCL
        2. 3.2.1.2 HCL Operation
        3. 3.2.1.3 Multi-element HCLs
      2. 3.2.2 Electrodeless Discharge Lamps
      3. 3.2.3 Boosted Discharge Lamps
      4. 3.2.4 Diode Lasers
      5. 3.2.5 Continuous Sources
    3. 3.3 Atomizers: A General View
    4. 3.4 Wavelength Selectors
    5. 3.5 Detectors
    6. 3.6 Background Correctors
      1. 3.6.1 Deuterium Background Corrector
      2. 3.6.2 Zeeman Correction
      3. 3.6.3 Smith–Hieftje Correction
  10. Chapter 4. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Atomizer Unit in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
      1. 4.2.1 Nebulizer, Nebulization Chamber, and Burner
      2. 4.2.2 Flame
      3. 4.2.3 Special Sampling Techniques
    3. 4.3 Flame Atomic Absorption Instrumentation
      1. 4.3.1 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometers
      2. 4.3.2 Accessories
        1. 4.3.2.1 Autosamplers
        2. 4.3.2.2 Atom Concentrator Tube or Slotted Tube Atom Trap
        3. 4.3.2.3 High-Solid Analyzer
        4. 4.3.2.4 Flame Microsampler
        5. 4.3.2.5 Automatic Burner Rotation
      3. 4.4 Analytical Performance Characteristics and Interferences
        1. 4.4.1 Spectral Interferences
        2. 4.4.2 Nonspectral Interferences
        3. 4.4.3 Calibration in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
        4. 4.4.4 Analytical Figures of Merit
        5. 4.4.5 Use of Organic Solvents
      4. 4.5 Applications and Example Case Studies
        1. 4.5.1 Determination of Calcium in Milk
        2. 4.5.2 Determination of Molybdenum in Fertilizers
        3. 4.5.3 Determination of Lead in Gasoline
        4. 4.5.4 Determination of Boron, Phosphorus, and Sulfur by High-Resolution Continuum Source FAAS for Plant Analysis
  11. Chapter 5. Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 The Electrothermal Atomizer
      1. 5.2.1 The Atomization Tube
      2. 5.2.2 Side-Heated Atomizers
    3. 5.3 Basic Steps in Analysis by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: The Temperature Program
    4. 5.4 Instrumentation
      1. 5.4.1 Sample-Introduction System
      2. 5.4.2 Instrumental Background Correction
      3. 5.4.3 Data Acquisition and Treatment
    5. 5.5 Interferences
      1. 5.5.1 Spectral Interferences
      2. 5.5.2 Nonspectral Interferences
    6. 5.6 Chemical Modifiers
    7. 5.7 Atomization From Solids and Slurries
    8. 5.8 Analytical Performance Characteristics of Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Methods
    9. 5.9 Applications and Example Case Studies
      1. 5.9.1 Determination of Lead in Human Urine and Blood
      2. 5.9.2 Determination of Selenium in Human Milk
      3. 5.9.3 Determination of Sulfur in Coal and Ash Slurry
  12. Chapter 6. Hydride Generation and Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Volatile Hydride Generation by Tetrahydroborate (III) in Aqueous Media
      1. 6.2.1 Mechanisms of Hydride Formation
      2. 6.2.2 Basic Instrumentation
      3. 6.2.3 Limits of Detection
      4. 6.2.4 Selectivity: Sources of Interferences
    3. 6.3 Electrochemical Generation of Volatile Hydrides
    4. 6.4 Cold-Vapor Generation
      1. 6.4.1 Mercury
      2. 6.4.2 Cadmium
    5. 6.5 Trapping/Preconcentration of Volatilized Analytes
    6. 6.6 Applications and Example Case Studies
      1. 6.6.1 Determination of Arsenic in Waters
      2. 6.6.2 Determination of Mercury and Methylmercury in Hair
      3. 6.6.3 Determination of Selenium in Bean and Soil Samples Using Hydride Generation—Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
  13. Chapter 7. Flow Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Flow Injection Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    3. 7.3 Basic Instrument Components: Sample Introduction Unit, Propulsion System, and Connecting Tubes
      1. 7.3.1 Sample Introduction Unit
      2. 7.3.2 Propulsion System
      3. 7.3.3 Connecting Tubes
    4. 7.4 Simple Common Manifolds: Dilution, Reagent Addition, and Calibration
    5. 7.5 Solid–Liquid Separation and Preconcentration
      1. 7.5.1 Sorption
      2. 7.5.2 Precipitation and Coprecipitation
    6. 7.6 Gas-Phase Formation Strategies
      1. 7.6.1 Flow Systems for the Formation of Volatile Derivatives of the Analyte(s)
      2. 7.6.2 Approaches for Preconcentration in the Gas Phase
    7. 7.7 Miniaturized Preconcentration Methods Based on Liquid–Liquid Extraction
    8. 7.8 Sample Digestion
      1. 7.8.1 Online Photo-Oxidation Flow Systems
      2. 7.8.2 Online Microwave-Assisted Digestion
    9. 7.9 Chromatographic Separations Coupled Online to Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    10. 7.10 Applications and Example Case Studies
      1. 7.10.1 Online Aluminium Preconcentration and Its Application to the Determination of the Metal in Dialysis Concentrates
      2. 7.10.2 Indirect Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Iodine in Milk Products
      3. 7.10.3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography—Microwave Digestion—Hydride Generation—AAS for Inorganic and Organic Arsenic Speciation in Fish Tissue
  14. Chapter 8. Emerging Fields of Applications, Chemometrics, Quality-Control and Troubleshooting
    1. 8.1 Emerging Fields of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Applications
    2. 8.2 Basic Chemometric Techniques in AAS
    3. 8.3 Quality-Control Guidelines and Troubleshooting
      1. 8.3.1 Flame AAS
        1. 8.3.1.1 Light system
        2. 8.3.1.2 Nebulizer and Burner System
        3. 8.3.1.3 System Cleanliness
      2. 8.3.2 Electrothermal AAS
        1. 8.3.2.1 Autosampler
        2. 8.3.2.2 Furnace Workhead
        3. 8.3.2.3 Background Correction
  15. Appendix A Buyer’s Guide
  16. Appendix B Glossary of Terms
  17. Appendix C Standards
  18. References
  19. Index
  20. Ad Page
  21. Back Cover