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Assistive Technologies

Book Description

Individuals with disabilities often have difficulty accomplishing tasks, living independently, and utilizing information technologies; simple aspects of daily life taken for granted by non-disabled individuals. Assistive Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications presents a comprehensive collection of research, developments, and knowledge on technologies that enable disabled individuals to function effectively and accomplish otherwise impossible tasks. These volumes serve as a crucial reference source for experts in fields as diverse as healthcare, information science, education, engineering, and human-computer interaction, with applications bridging multiple disciplines.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Assistive Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CASE: TERRY
      5. A PEEK INTO THE FUTURE
      6. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    2. Chapter 2: A Guide to Assistive Technology for Teachers in Special Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR PEOPLE WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
      4. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE VISION IMPAIRED
      5. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR LEARNERS WITH COGNITION-RELATED DISABILITIES
      6. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR PEOPLE WITH PRESENTATION-RELATED DISABILITIES
      7. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION
      8. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION
      9. SELECTION OF ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Communication Technology Integration in the Content Areas for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION
      6. CURRENT STATUS OF THE CASE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. EPILOGUE
      10. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Accessibility Issues of Educational Web Sites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT STATUS OF ACCESSIBILITY
      4. ACHIEVING WEB ACCESSIBILITY
      5. WEB ACCESSIBILITY EVALUATION TOOLS
      6. PRACTICAL ACCESSIBILITY RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: An Overview of Accessibility and Usability of Educational Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ACCESSIBILITY AND USABILITY
      4. EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER-BASED GAMES AND GAMING ENVIRONMENTS
      5. STUDIES
      6. STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL GAMES
      7. DESIGNING ACCESSIBLE AND USABLE EDUCATIONAL GAMING ENVIRONMENTS
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: A Brief Survey on User Modelling in Human Computer Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GOMS FAMILY OF MODELS
      4. COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURES
      5. GRAMMAR BASED MODELS
      6. APPLICATION SPECIFIC MODELS
      7. REVIEW
      8. THE SIMULATOR
      9. IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: POMDP Models for Assistive Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. GENERAL MODEL
      5. ACTIVITY MODELS
      6. HEALTH MONITORING AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    8. Chapter 8: Working Together with Computers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BASIC COMPONENTS OF HCI
      4. PARADIGMS FOR HCI ARCHITECTURE
      5. TOWARDS A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR DISTRIBUTED COLLABORATIVE HCI
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: Creating Synergies between Participatory Design of E-Services and Collaborative Planning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PARTICIPATION IN DESIGN AND PLANNING
      4. DESIGN IN CONTEXT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PLANNING
      5. SYNERGIES BETWEEN DESIGN AND PLANNING
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 10: Concepts for Enhancing Content Quality and eAccessibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ENSURING CONTENT QUALITY IN E-BUSINESS STANDARDS
      3. CONCEPTS FOR ENHANCING CONTENT QUALITY
      4. CONTENT QUALITY ASPECTS IN E-PROCUREMENT
      5. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
    11. Chapter 11: Intellectual Disability, Identity, and the Internet
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Internet-Based Chronic Disease Self-Management for Youth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NEED FOR NEW MODELS OF SELF-MANAGEMENT FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH
      5. DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-MANAGEMENT INTERNET PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 13: Assistive Technologies, Tools and Resources for the Access and Use of Information and Communication Technologies by People with Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 14: Capacity Building for Different Abilities Using ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BUILDING CAPACITY IN BUSINESS WITH INCLUSION USING ICT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 15: Assistive Technology and Rehabilitation Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. COMPREHENSIVE DEFINITIONS OF ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING
      5. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE OVERVIEW
      6. PREVALENCE OF IMPAIRMENTS
      7. MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DISABILITY
      8. PRINCIPLES OF ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING
      9. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES OR DEVICES FOR BLINDNESS AND LOW VISION
      10. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND DEVICES FOR SEVERE HEARING IMPAIRMENTS
      11. INTERFACES FOR MOTORIC IMPAIRMENTS
      12. COMMUNICATION AIDS
      13. MOBILITY AIDS
      14. GENERAL PURPOSE ELECTRO-MECHANICAL MANIPULATION AIDS
      15. ARTIFICIAL ARMS
      16. LOWER LIMB PROSTHETICS
      17. PRACTICE OF REHABILITATION ENGINEERING
      18. PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES AND ORGANIZATIONS
      19. CHAPTER SUMMARY
    16. Chapter 16: A Model for Gaze Control Assessments and Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TAKING A CLIENT-CENTRED APPROACH
      4. OUTCOMES AND DISCUSSION
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 17: In-TIC for Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR COMMUNICATING WITH MOBILE DEVICES FOR THE DISABLED USING ADAPTABLE ENVIRONMENTS
      5. FUNCTIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT USED BY THE PROFESSIONAL
      6. FUNCTIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE DISABLED USER
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 18: Sensors and their Application for Disabled and Elderly People
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS A SENSOR?
      4. SIGNAL CONDITIONER SYSTEMS
      5. SENSORS APPLICATIONS FOR DISABLED PEOPLE AND ELDERLY PEOPLE
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    3. Chapter 19: Touch Screens for the Elderly
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SURVEY
      4. COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INFORMATION INPUT DEVICES
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
    4. Chapter 20: Aligning iPad Applications with Evidence-Based Practices in Inclusive and Special Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS AND THE UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING MODEL
      5. iPADS AND STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
      6. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 21: 3D Assistive Technologies and Advantageous Themes for Collaboration and Blended Learning of Users with Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGN OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR ACCESSIBILITY IN 3D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
      5. THEMES AND SUB-CONCEPTS OF DELIVERING EDUCATION IN 3D VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      6. ADVANTAGEOUS THEMES AND SUB-CONCEPTS OF LEARNING IN 3D VLEs
      7. DISADVANTAGEOUS THEMES AND SUB-CONCEPTS OF LEARNING IN 3D VLEs
      8. ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS PROPOSED FOR DESIGN OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR THE DISABLED
      9. RESULTS
      10. RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH
      12. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 22: Reading by Listening
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE EMERGENCE OF TEXT-TO-SPEECH TECHNOLOGY
      5. ACCESSING BOOKS IN AUDIO FORMAT
      6. ACCESSING AUDIO FORMATTED ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR FREE
      7. STUDENT DOCUMENTATION FOR DISABILITY SERVICES OFFICES
      8. ILLITERATE COMPUTERS: SYNTHESIZERS
      9. CASES
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. EPILOGUE
      12. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    7. Chapter 23: Automatic Speech Recognition to Enhance Learning for Disabled Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRANSCRIPTION SYSTEMS
      4. COMPARISON
      5. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 24: Speech Disorders Recognition using Speech Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ASR IN SPEECH IMPAIRMENT DETECTION
      4. LTTERATURE REVIEW
      5. AVAILABLE TOOLS
      6. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES
    9. Chapter 25: Experiences Using a Free Tool for Voice Therapy based on Speech Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGNING AND INTERFACE OF PRELINGUA
      5. RESULTS AND EXPERIENCES OF THE USE OF PRELINGUA
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 26: Ways of ICT Usage among Mildly Intellectually Disabled Adolescents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE INTELLECTUALLY DISABLED AS USERS OF ICT
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. IMPORTANCE AND PURPOSES OF ICT USAGE
      5. RESPONDENTS’ NEEDS FOR ACQUIRING NEW ICT SKILLS
      6. ICT AND ITS USAGE FOR COMMUNICATION PURPOSES
      7. AWARENESS OF THE RISKS RELATED TO ICT USAGE
      8. ICT USAGE AND ELECTRONIC AGGRESSION
      9. BEING A VICTIM OF ELECTRONIC AGGRESSION
      10. BEING A PERPETRATOR OF ELECTRONIC AGGRESSION
      11. ICT USAGE AND FAMILY LIFE
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 27: What Do You Do With a Digital Pen?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A PENCAST LECTURE
      4. USING DIGITAL PENS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
      5. ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    12. Chapter 28: Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. A COMPREHENSIVE DEFINITION OF PROSTHETIC AND ORTHOTIC DEVICES
      5. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE OVERVIEW
      6. PROSTHETICS
      7. UPPER LIMB PROSTHESES
      8. LOWER LIMB PROSTHESES
      9. ORTHOTICS
      10. UPPER LIMB ORTHOSES
      11. LOWER LIMB ORTHOSES
      12. SPINAL ORTHOSES
      13. COMMON PROBLEMS WITH ORTHOTICS
      14. THE FUTURE OF PROSTHETIC AND ORTHOTIC DEVICES
      15. PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES AND ORGANIZATIONS
      16. CHAPTER SUMMARY
    13. Chapter 29: Motion Control of an Omni-Directional Walker for Walking Support
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND
      3. OMNI-DIRECTIONAL WALKER
      4. SIMULATION
      5. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 30: Wheelchairs as Assistive Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUNCTIONAL REASONS AND COMMON DIAGNOSES FOR USE OF A WHEELCHAIR IN THE EDUCATIONAL SETTING
      5. TYPES OF WHEELCHAIRS
      6. WHEELCHAIR FUNCTIONS
      7. ADDITIONAL FACTORS THAT MAY IMPACT WHEELCHAIR CHOICE
      8. ROLE OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATOR IN WHEELCHAIR MANAGEMENT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    15. Chapter 31: DeepKøver
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MODULAR ARCHITECTURE
      4. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
      5. EMPIRICAL RESULTS INTERPRETATION
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE WORK
      8. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 32: Assistive Technologies in Smart Homes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HOME NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES: OVERVIEW
      4. SENSING TECHNOLOGIES: OVERVIEW
      5. SMART HOMES IN THE WORLD
      6. ASSISTIVE SERVICES IN SMART HOMES
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 33: Ubiquitous Computing for Independent Living
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CLASSIFYING ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
      5. OBSTACLES OF UBICOMP AND AT
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 34: E-Health and Telemedicine in the Elderly
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 35: Telegerontology®
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TELEGERONTOLOGY®
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 36: Nascent Access Technologies for Individuals with Severe Motor Impairments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PHYSIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
      5. INSTRUMENTATION
      6. EVIDENCE
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 37: RACEM Game for PC for Use as Rehabilitation Therapy for Children with Psychomotor Disability and Results of its Application
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. OBTAINED RESULTS
      6. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 38: An Overview on the Use of Serious Games in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAMES TECHNOLOGIES IN REHABILITATION
      4. GAMES TECHNOLOGIES IN REHABILITATION
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. Chapter 39: Teaching Executive Functions, Self-Management, and Ethical Decision-Making through Popular Videogame Play
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PILOT STUDIES
      4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    9. Chapter 40: Collaborative Virtual Learning for Assisting Children with Cerebral Palsy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROTOTYPING
      4. RESULT AND FINDINGS
      5. FUTURE WORKS
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 41: Embodied Conversational Agents in Interactive Applications for Children with Special Educational Needs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: ECAs IN SPECIAL EDUCATION
      4. A COLLECTION OF EXPERIENCES TO DESIGN APPLICATIONS WITH ECAs IN THE C.P.E.E. INFANTA ELENA OF MADRID
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. Chapter 42: Computer Interventions for Children with Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
      4. RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
      5. NATIONAL CENTER FOR IMPROVEMENT OF PRACTICE
      6. COMPLEXITY
      7. RESERACH
      8. PRACTICE
      9. SUMMARY
      10. PARADIGM SHIFTS IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
      11. COMPUTERS, RESERACH, AND THE PARADIGM SHIFT
      12. IS THE EXISTINTG RESEARCH FLAWED?
      13. EXISTING KNOWLEDGE BASE: EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
      14. BEHAVIORAL PARADIGM
      15. SPECIAL EDUCATION
      16. COGNITIVE PARADIGM
      17. CONSTRUCTIVISM PARADIGM
      18. CSI SYSTEM DESIGN
      19. EMERGING KNOWLEDGE BASE: INTERACTIVE INSTRUCTION
      20. INTERACTIVE INSTRUCTION
      21. FUTURE THEORY, RESEARCH, AND PRACTICE WITH COMPUTERS
      22. TEACHING BEYOND 2000
      23. DISTRIBUTED LEARNING
      24. CLASSES AND SCHOOLS
      25. READING, WRITING, AND MATHEMATICS
      26. IS THE MEDIUM THE MESSAGE?
      27. SYSTEMIC APPROACH
      28. TECHNOLOGY TOOLS
      29. COGNITIVE PRESCRIPTIONS: PRACTICAL VS. THEORETICAL RESEARCH
      30. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 43: Affect-Sensitive Computing and Autism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPLETED RESEARCH ON AFFECT-SENSITIVE COMPUTING AND AUTISM
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 44: Accessibility and Usability Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ACCESSIBILITY AND USABILITY: ARE THE GATEWAYS TO E-GOVERNANCE OPEN?
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. TRENDS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 45: Electronic Voting by Means of Digital Terrestrial Television
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
      4. SECURITY ISSUES
      5. SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS: AN ANALYSIS
      6. A REAL TEST BED (ELECTION NIGHT)
      7. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 46: IDTVOS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IDTVOS: AN INTECO OPEN INNOVATION SUCCESS CASE
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FINAL RESULTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 47: The Impact of International Management on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in the Workforce
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EDUCATION
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 48: Supporting Unskilled People in Manual Tasks through Haptic-Based Guidance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVICE EVALUATION
      4. RELATED WORKS
      5. THE HAPTIC-BASED GUIDANCE SYSTEM CONCEPT
      6. USERS TESTS
      7. PHASE 1: VALIDATION OF ACCURACY WITH HEALTHY PEOPLE
      8. PHASE 2: PRELIMINARY TEST WITH UNSKILLED PEOPLE
      9. PHASE 3: STRUCTURED TEST TO VALIDATE THE HAPTIC-BASED GUIDANCE SYSTEM
      10. GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS OF THE TESTING PHASE
      11. ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS OF THE SYSTEM
      12. DISCUSSION
      13. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 49: Using Myoelectric Signals to Manipulate Assisting Robots and Rehabilitation Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MYOELECTRIC HMI APPLIED TO WHEELCHAIR
      4. MYOELECTRIC HMI APPLIED TO VIDEO GAME
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 50: Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A SUM OF ITS PARTS: REFLECTIONS FROM ADULTS WHO USE ATYPICAL COMMUNICATION MODES IN CONVERSATION
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 51: Voice/Speech Recognition Software
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEETING THE PROMISE
      4. PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    6. Chapter 52: Evaluation of Web Accessibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BACKGROUND ABOUT WEB ACCESSIBILITY
      4. LEGAL ASPECTS CONCERNING WEB ACCESSIBILITY
      5. ACCESSIBILITY EVALUATION METHODS
      6. THE COMBINED METHOD FOR EVALUATING WEB ACCESSIBILITY
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 53: Eye Movements and Attention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS AND TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS
      4. ATTENTION
      5. EYE MOVEMENTS AND SUBJECTIVE STATES
      6. SUMMARY
    8. Chapter 54: Features of Gaze Control Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHOOSING THE BEST SYSTEM FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL
      4. MATCHING THE SOFTWARE WITH EACH INDIVIDUAL’S INTEREST AND NEEDS
      5. BEING READY TO CHANGE AND EVOLVE
    9. Chapter 55: Safety Issues and Infrared Light
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: EYE TRACKERS AND INFRARED LIGHT
      3. LIGHT AND THE EYE
      4. INTRODUCTION TO RADIOMETRY: KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
      5. MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS
      6. MEASUREMENT OF SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS
      7. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIGHT EMITTED
      8. OPTICAL RADIATION SAFETY STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
      9. MEDICAL ISSUES AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES
      12. DISCUSSION
    10. Chapter 56: Assistive ICT and Young Disabled Persons
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. EFFECTS OF ASSISTIVE ICT
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 57: On the Use of Speech Technologies to Achieve Inclusive Education for People with Intellectual Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND SPEECH IMPAIRMENTS
      4. DISABILITY AND TECHNOLOGIES
      5. SPEECH TECHNOLOGIES TO HELP INTELLECTUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE
      6. APPROACH TO GENERATE SPEECH RESOURCES FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    12. Chapter 58: Supports for and Barriers to Implementing Assistive Technology in Schools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
      4. SAMPLE AND DATA COLLECTION
      5. ANALYSIS
      6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      7. DISCUSSION
    13. Chapter 59: Instructional Design in Digital Environments and Availability of Mental Resources for the Aged Subpopulation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEMPORARY UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE
      4. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AS INFLUENCED BY AGING
      5. COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN ELDERLY PEOPLE’S AVAILABLE MENTAL RESOURCES AND DIGITAL MEANS
      6. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND DELIVERY GUIDELINES FOR THE AGED SUBPOPULATION
      7. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 60: Web-Based Experimentation for Students with Learning Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BRIEF REVIEW OF LEARNING AIDS FOR LEARNING DISABLED
      4. REVIEW OF WEB-BASED EXPERIMENTATION LABS FOR TEACHING MICROELECTRONICS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 61: Accessibility Implementation for Disabled Students in PMBOLD Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 62: Assistive Technology in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ACCESS AND THE COLLEGE ENVIRONMENT
      5. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 63: Mental Health, Post-Secondary Education, and Information Communications Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MENTAL HEALTH AND HIGHER EDUCATION
      4. HUMAN RIGHTS DISCOURSES AND MENTAL HEALTH
      5. ICT, MENTAL HEALTH, AND HIGHER EDUCATION
      6. CASE STUDY
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 64: Coping with Accessibility and Usability Challenges of Online Technologies by Blind Students in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE STUDY
      4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
      5. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
      6. NOTE
    6. Chapter 65: Lecture Capture as a Tool to Enhance Student Accessibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. Chapter 66: Improving Cognitive Load on Students with Disabilities through Software Aids
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURE IN THE DISABILITIES FIELD: DEAF PEOPLE SOCIOLOGY
      4. FROM THE SIGN LANGUAGE TO SIGNWRITTING: A MULTIMEDIA APPROACH
      5. A SOLUTION: ON-LINE CONTENT ADAPTATION ARQUITECTURE
      6. A REALITY: WAI-AA ONLINE CONTENT ADAPTER
      7. ANOTHER REALITY: SWMLSVG
      8. WRAP UP
    8. Chapter 67: Technology and Literacy for Students with Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECH
      4. SUMMARY
    9. Chapter 68: Towards the Use of Dialog Systems to Facilitate Inclusive Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIALOG SYSTEMS: MODULAR ARCHITECTURE AND PROCESSES
      4. SPOKEN DIALOG SYSTEMS AND EDUCATION
      5. EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIVE DIALOG SYSTEMS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. Chapter 69: Criteria of Development of Adaptive Didactic Games for People with Intellectual Disability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 70: Technology to Facilitate the General Education Curriculum
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NARRATIVE ANALYSIS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. APPENDIX: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    12. Chapter 71: A Parent’s Guide to Support Technologies for Preschool Students with Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES
      3. BACKGROUND: FINDING OUT ABOUT YOUR CHILD’S CONDITION
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. APPENDIX: TEACHING TIPS AND RESOURCES
    13. Chapter 72: Enabling Context Aware Services in the Area of AAC
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXT AND CONTEXT AWARENESS
      4. CARMA: THE CONTEXT AWARE REMOTE MONITORING ASSISTANT
      5. SUMMARY
      6. CHALLENGES AND FUTURE WORK
      7. CHALLENGES
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 73: Assistive Technologies and Environmental Design Concepts for Blended Learning and Teaching for Disabilities within 3D Virtual Worlds and Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH RATIONALE
      5. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 74: Conversational Metabots for Educational Applications in Virtual Worlds
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL WORLDS
      3. EDUCATIVE APPLICATIONS OF VIRTUAL WORLDS
      4. TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SECOND LIFE
      5. SPEECH TECHNOLOGIES TO ENSURE DIGITAL EQUALITY IN VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      6. A PROPOSAL FOR INCLUDING SPEECH IN VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      7. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 75: A Face Based Real Time Communication for Physically and Speech Disabled People
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FACIAL EXPRESSION
      4. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION
      5. PROTOTYPE MODELLING
      6. EVALUATION
      7. FINDINGS
      8. CONSTRAINTS
      9. FUTURE WORKS AND IMPROVEMENT
      10. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 76: Facial Muscle Activity Patterns for Recognition of Utterances in Native and Foreign Language
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 77: Fuzzy Linguistic Modelling in Multi Modal Human Computer Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB-BASED ADAPTIVE HYPERMEDIA SYSTEMS AND FUZZY LOGIC THEORY
      4. COGNITIVE/LEARNING STYLES
      5. NAVIGATION AND PRESENTATION PREFERENCES
      6. ADAPTATION TO COGNITIVE/LEARNING STYLES
      7. SIMULATION EXAMPLE
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    3. Chapter 78: Model-Based Approaches for Scanning Keyboard Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SURVEY OF AAC SYSTEMS
      4. SCANNING KEYBOARDS
      5. PERFORMANCE MODELS FOR SCANNING KEYBOARDS
      6. DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION ALGORITHMS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 79: A Review of Current Approaches of Brain Computer Interfaces
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BCI BASICS
      4. PREPROCESSING
      5. FEATURE EXTRACTION
      6. CLASSIFICATION
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 80: Brain-Machine Interface Using Brain Surface Electrodes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NEURAL DECODING AND REAL-TIME ROBOTIC CONTROL USING ELECTROCORTICOGRAMS
      4. A FULLY IMPLANTABLE WIRELESS SYSTEM
      5. NONINVASIVE NEURAL DECODING USING MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 81: Brain-Computer Interfaces and Visual Activity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EEG-BASED BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES
      4. EVOKED POTENTIALS INDEPENDENT OF GAZE
      5. CURRENT APPLICATIONS
      6. HYBRID BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES
      7. OTHER ASPECTS OF BCI RESEARCH
    7. Chapter 82: Listening to Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 83: Unconstrained Walking Plane to Virtual Environment for Non-Visual Spatial Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LOCOMOTION INTERFACE
      4. UNCONSTRAINED WALKING PLANE
      5. ALGORITHM FOR TURNING AND SIDE-STEPPING
      6. MODULAR STRUCTURE OF UWP SOFTWARE
      7. ADVANTAGES OF UWP
      8. ORIGINALITIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE UWP
      9. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
      10. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIVES
    9. Chapter 84: Design of and Experimentation with a Walking Assistance Robot
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE WALKING ASSISTANCE ROBOT
      4. RESEARCH SETUP
      5. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 85: State-of-the-Art Assistive Technology for People with Dementia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES
      4. ASSISTIVE HARDWARE
      5. ASSISTIVE SOFTWARE
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 86: The LiveAbility House
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: LAYING THE FOUNDATION
      4. INTEGRATING SUBJECT MATTER CONTENT
      5. CONSTRUCTING THE LIVEABILITY HOUSE
      6. ENGAGED LEARNING AND PROJECT BOUNDARIES: THE LIVEABILITY HOUSE TODAY
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THE PROJECT
      8. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 87: Interactivating Rehabilitation through Active Multimodal Feedback and Guidance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND INSPIRATION FOR THE WORK
      4. SPINAL CORD INJURY TRAINING ENHANCEMENT USING HCI
      5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
    13. Chapter 88: New Communication Technologies for Inclusive Education in and outside the Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
      5. NEW COMMUNICATION METHODS FOR THE TEACHER
      6. USE OF NEW PERSONAL DEVICES FOR THE STUDENTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION