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Assessing the Environmental Impact of Textiles and the Clothing Supply Chain

Book Description

The textile industry impacts the environment in a number of ways, including its use of resources, its impact on global warming, and the amount of pollution and waste it generates. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Textiles and the Clothing Supply Chain reviews methods used to calculate this environmental impact including product carbon footprints (PCFs), ecological footprints (EFs) and life cycle assessment (LCA).

The first chapters provide an introduction to the textile supply chain and its environmental impact, and an overview of the methods used to measure this impact. The book goes on to consider different environmental impacts of the industry including greenhouse gas emissions, the water and energy footprint of the industry and depletion of resources as well as the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess the overall environmental impact of the textile industry. It then deals with the practice of measuring these impacts before forming a conclusion about the environmental impact of the industry.

Assessing the Environmental Impact of Textiles and the Clothing Supply Chain will be a standard reference for R&D managers in the textile industry and academic researchers in textile science.



  • Reviews the main methods used to calculate the textile industry‚Äôs use of resources, its impact on global warming and the pollution and waste it generates
  • Reviews the key methods, their principles and how they can be applied in practice to measure and reduce the environmental impact of textile products
  • Includes the following calculation methods: product carbon footprints (PCFs), ecological footprints (EFs) and life cycle assessment (LCA)

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Author contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles
  7. Chapter 1: The textile supply chain and its environmental impact
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 The textile supply chain: an overview
    4. 1.3 The production of natural fibres
    5. 1.4 The production of synthetic fibres
    6. 1.5 Spinning
    7. 1.6 Fabric manufacture
    8. 1.7 Finishing processes
    9. 1.8 Apparel manufacture
    10. 1.9 Distribution and retail
    11. 1.10 Usage and disposal
    12. 1.11 Summary: key challenges in assessing and reducing environmental impacts
  8. Chapter 2: Ways of measuring the environmental impact of textile processing: an overview
    1. Abstract:
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Ways of measuring the environmental impact of textile processing and textile products
    4. 2.3 Environmental legislation relating to textiles
    5. 2.4 Current environmental standards and schemes in the industry
    6. 2.5 Summary: key methods reviewed in this book
  9. Chapter 3: Textile processing and greenhouse gas emissions: methods for calculating the product carbon footprint (PCF) of textile products
    1. Abstract:
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 The main principles of carbon footprint measurement
    4. 3.3 Carbon footprint assessment methodology
    5. 3.4 Applications of product carbon footprint (PCF) assessment to key stages in the supply chain
    6. 3.5 Application of PCF assessment in textiles
    7. 3.6 Summary: key challenges in calculating the PCF in textiles
  10. Chapter 4: Calculating the water and energy footprints of textile products
    1. Abstract:
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Water footprints: an introduction
    4. 4.3 Methods for assessing water footprints
    5. 4.4 Applications of water footprint assessment to key stages in the textile supply chain
    6. 4.5 Energy footprints: introduction and methods of assessment
    7. 4.6 Applications of energy footprint assessment to key stages in the textile supply chain
    8. 4.7 Summary: key challenges in calculating water and energy footprints
  11. Chapter 5: Textile processing and resource depletion: calculating the ecological footprint of textile products
    1. Abstract:
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Main principles and methods
    4. 5.3 Application to key stages in the supply chain
    5. 5.4 Summary: key challenges in calculating ecological footprints (EFs) in textiles
  12. Chapter 6: Estimating the overall environmental impact of textile processing: life cycle assessment (LCA) of textile products
    1. Abstract:
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 History of life cycle assessment (LCA)
    4. 6.3 Basic principles of LCA
    5. 6.4 LCA goal and scope definition
    6. 6.5 Life cycle inventory analysis
    7. 6.6 Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)
    8. 6.7 Life cycle interpretation
    9. 6.8 Standards for LCA
    10. 6.9 Different LCA methods
    11. 6.10 Different LCIA methods
    12. 6.11 Tools for calculation of LCAs
    13. 6.12 Advantages and limitations of LCA
    14. 6.13 Summary
  13. Chapter 7: Life cycle assessment (LCA) and product carbon footprint (PCF) modelling of textile products
    1. Abstract:
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Modelling for product carbon footprint (PCF) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of textile products
    4. 7.3 Available databases for LCA and PCF modelling of textiles and the clothing supply chain
    5. 7.4 Key issues in using databases
    6. 7.5 Difficulties in modelling and simulation
    7. 7.6 Summary
  14. Chapter 8: End-of-life management of textile products
    1. Abstract:
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 End-of-life product management options
    4. 8.3 Reuse of textile products
    5. 8.4 Recycling of textile products
    6. 8.5 Incineration and landfilling of textile products
    7. 8.6 Biodegradation of textile products
    8. 8.7 Summary
  15. Chapter 9: Measuring the environmental impact of textiles in practice: calculating the product carbon footprint (PCF) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of particular textile products
    1. Abstract:
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Cotton clothing: life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of T-shirts
    4. 9.3 Cotton clothing: LCA studies of jeans
    5. 9.4 Woollen clothing: LCA study of a sweater
    6. 9.5 Synthetic clothing: LCA studies of polyester garments
    7. 9.6 Linen textiles: LCA of a linen shirt
    8. 9.7 Technical textiles: LCA studies of medical textile products
    9. 9.8 Nonwovens: LCA studies of nappies (diapers)
    10. 9.9 Summary
  16. Chapter 10: Assessing the environmental impact of textiles: summary and conclusions
    1. Abstract:
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 Which assessment methods to use and when
    4. 10.3 Current problems in environmental assessment
    5. 10.4 Future trends
  17. Index