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Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health

Book Description

The book will take a systematic look at nanoparticle risks within the paradigm of risk assessment, consider the limitations of this paradigm in dealing with the extreme uncertainties regarding many aspects of nanoparticle exposure and toxicity, and suggest new methods for assessing and managing risks in this context. It will consider the occupational environment where the potential for human exposure is the greatest as well as the issues relevant to occupational exposure assessment (e.g., the exposure metric) and the evidence from toxicological and epidemiological studies.

A chapter will be devoted to how conventional risk assessment can be carried out for a candidate nanoparticle (e.g., carbon nanotubes), and the limitations that arise from this approach. We will propose several alternate methods in another chapter including screening assessments and adapting the rich methodological literature on the use of experts for risk assessment. Another chapter will deal with non-occupational populations, their susceptibilities, and life-cycle risk assessments. There will be a chapter on current risk management and regulatory oversight frameworks and their adequacy. This chapter will also include a discussion of U.S. and E.U. approaches to risk assessment, as well as corporate approaches.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Front-matter
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. About the Editor
  7. About the Contributors
  8. Chapter 1. Challenges in Nanoparticle Risk Assessment
  9. 1.1. Introduction
  10. 1.2. The Nature of the Engineered Nanomaterial Challenge
  11. 1.3. The Problem with Definitions
  12. 1.4. Principles-Based Problem Formulation for Engineered Nanomaterials
  13. 1.5. Applying the Principles to Engineered Nanomaterials
  14. 1.6. Looking Forward
  15. Chapter 2. Assessing Exposures to Nanomaterials in the Occupational Environment
  16. 2.1. Nanotechnology and Nanoparticles
  17. 2.2. Exposure Routes
  18. 2.3. Measurement of Health-Related Exposure Metrics
  19. 2.4. Instrumentation
  20. 2.5. Exposure Assessment Strategy
  21. Chapter 3. Hazard and Risk Assessment of Workplace Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticles
  22. 3.1. Introduction
  23. 3.2. Case Study Example: Carbon Nanotubes
  24. 3.3. Discussion
  25. 3.4. Appendix: Pulmonary Ventilation Rate Calculations
  26. Chapter 4. Pulmonary Bioassay Methods for Evaluating Hazards Following Exposures to Nanoscale or Fine Particulate Materials
  27. 4.1. Introduction and General Background
  28. 4.2. What Is Postulated About the Lung Hazards of Nanoparticle Exposures
  29. 4.3. Species Differences in Lung Responses to Inhaled Fine and/or Ultrafine TiO2 Particles
  30. 4.4. Pulmonary Bioassay Studies
  31. Chapter 5. Using Expert Judgment for Risk Assessment
  32. 5.1. Uncertainties in Risk Assessment
  33. 5.2. Limitations of Existing Methodologies for Risk Assessment and Precedents for Using Expert Judgment
  34. 5.3. Eliciting Expert Judgment – Selection of Experts, Elicitation Protocols and Best Practices
  35. 5.4. Arriving at Consensus Risk Estimates
  36. 5.5. The Use of Expert Judgment for Nanoparticle Risks
  37. 5.6. Conclusions
  38. Chapter 6. Risk Assessment Using Control Banding
  39. 6.1. Introduction
  40. 6.2. Challenges Related to the Traditional Industrial Hygiene Approach
  41. 6.3. CB Nanotool
  42. 6.4. Evaluation of the CB Nanotool
  43. 6.5. Considerations for the Nanotechnology Industry
  44. 6.6. Conclusion
  45. Chapter 7. Controlling Nanoparticle Exposures
  46. 7.1. Introduction
  47. 7.2. The Hierarchy of Control
  48. 7.3. Criteria for Prioritizing Control Options
  49. 7.4. Form of Nanomaterials
  50. 7.5. Local Exhaust Ventilation
  51. 7.6. Air Pollution Control Devices
  52. 7.7. Work Practices
  53. 7.8. Personal Protective Equipment
  54. 7.9. Summary and Recommendations
  55. Chapter 8. Addressing the Risks of Nanomaterials under United States and European Union Regulatory Frameworks for Chemicals*
  56. 8.1. Introduction
  57. 8.2. US Chemicals Regulation
  58. 8.3. European Union Chemicals Regulation
  59. 8.4. Comparative Analysis
  60. 8.5. Conclusion
  61. Index