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Asia-Pacific Transfer Pricing Handbook

Book Description

An overarching look at transfer pricing regimes in Asia-Pacific countries and what they mean for foreign businesses

A comprehensive guide for companies doing business globally, Asia-Pacific Transfer Pricing Handbook explains the policies and practices that Asia-Pacific countries employ with regards to taxing foreign businesses. The only book that analyzes and guides companies through the often complex transfer pricing rules in place in Asian-Pacific nations, the book explains how authorities in fifteen countries, including ASEAN, India, New Zealand, Japan, and South Korea, tax any company doing business within their borders.

Helping foreign companies to properly price their goods and services for global markets, providing defenses for transfer pricing audits, explaining standards for creating comparables that multijurisdictional tax administrations will accept, explaining documentation requirements and timing issues, and creating awareness about inadvertently becoming a permanent establishment, Asia-Pacific Transfer Pricing Handbook is an essential resource for doing business abroad.

  • Provides comprehensive, accessible information on transfer pricing in Asia-Pacific countries

  • Covers fifteen Asia-Pacific countries, including all ASEAN countries, giving readers unparalleled exposure to the different transfer pricing arrangements across the region

  • Explains how companies doing business abroad should price their goods and services for global markets to remain in accordance with the law

A complete and comprehensive guide to transfer pricing and its implications for firms and accountants operating in the Asia-Pacific region, Asia-Pacific Transfer Pricing Handbook explains everything foreign companies need to know about doing business abroad.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Contents
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Part One: Country-By-Country Analysis
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction
      1. Part One: Country-by-Country Analysis
      2. Part Two: Advanced Applications
    2. Chapter 2: Australia’s Risk Assessment Transfer Pricing Approach
      1. Introductory Issues
      2. Transfer Pricing Reviews
      3. Documentation Requirements
      4. Preparation of the Documentation File
      5. Applying the Arm’s Length Principle
      6. Simplified Approach to Doing a Benchmarking Study
      7. Four Steps for Testing International Transfer Prices
      8. Decision Tree
      9. How the ATO Scores Risk
      10. Scoring the Three Levels
      11. Score Graph
      12. Outcome of Transfer Pricing Review or Audit
      13. Audits Taking Place in Low-Risk Situations
      14. Transfer Pricing Review Process
      15. Categorizing the Results of the Transfer Pricing Review
      16. How the Australian Transfer Pricing Audit Procedure Works
      17. Australia’s Four-Step Process for Businesses
    3. Chapter 3: Profit Attribution for a Dependent Agent’s Permanent Establishment in Australia
      1. Permanent Establishment Concepts in Australia
      2. Profit Attribution Concepts in Australia
      3. The ATO’s Operational Approach
      4. Determining Functional Analysis for a Permanent Establishment
      5. Comparative Analysis for the Permanent Establishment
      6. Application of the Resale Price Method
      7. Application of the Cost Plus Method
      8. Using a Transactional Net Margin Method
      9. Using a Profit Split Method
      10. Toll Manufacturers
      11. Four Examples
    4. Chapter 4: Australia’s Advance Pricing Arrangement Program
      1. Pre-Formal APA Discussions
      2. APA Processing Times
      3. Unilateral and Bilateral APAs
      4. The ATO’s APA Work in Process
      5. APA Issues and Methods
    5. Chapter 5: China Implements Transfer Pricing Procedures
      1. Overview
      2. Regulations
      3. Chapter 1: General Principles
      4. Chapter 2: Reporting and Filing of Related Party Transactions
      5. Chapter 3: Administration of Contemporaneous Documentation
      6. Chapter 4: Transfer Pricing Methods
      7. Chapter 5: Transfer Pricing Audits and Adjustments
      8. Chapter 6: Administrative Guidance Concerning Advance Pricing Arrangements
      9. Chapter 7: Administrative Guidance Concerning Cost Sharing Agreements
      10. Chapter 8: Administrative Guidelines Concerning Controlled Foreign Corporations
      11. Chapter 9: Administrative Guidance Concerning Thin Capitalization
      12. Chapter 10: Administrative Guidance Concerning General Anti-Avoidance
      13. Chapter 11: Corresponding Adjustments and International Negotiations
      14. Chapter 12: Legal Responsibility
      15. Chapter 13: Supplementary Provisions
    6. Chapter 6: Reporting Related Party Transactions in China
      1. Form 1—Related Party Relationships
      2. Form 2—Summary of Related Party Transactions
      3. Form 3—Purchases and Sales
      4. Form 4—Services Form
      5. Form 5—Intangible Assets
      6. Form 6—Fixed Assets
      7. Form 7—Financing
      8. Form 8—Outbound Investment
      9. Form 9—Outbound Payments
    7. Chapter 7: Hong Kong Advance Ruling Cases: Taxability of Profits
      1. Advance Ruling Process
      2. Advance Ruling Case No. 4
      3. Advance Ruling Case No. 8
      4. Advance Ruling Case No. 9
      5. Advance Ruling Case No. 10
      6. Advance Ruling Case No. 11
      7. Advance Ruling Case No. 12
      8. Advance Ruling Case No. 13
      9. Advance Ruling Case No. 16
      10. Advance Ruling Case No. 19
      11. Advance Ruling Case No. 21
      12. Advance Ruling Case No. 23
      13. Advance Ruling Case No. 26
      14. Advance Ruling Case No. 30
      15. Advance Ruling Case No. 34
      16. Advance Ruling Case No. 35
      17. Advance Ruling Case No. 36
      18. Advance Ruling Case No. 37
    8. Chapter 8: Hong Kong Transfer Pricing Guidelines
      1. Double Tax Agreements
      2. Arm’s Length Principle
      3. Associated Enterprises
      4. Appropriate Adjustments
      5. Inland Revenue Ordinance and Case Law
      6. Permanent Establishment Considerations
      7. Applying the Arm’s Length Principle
      8. Four Steps
      9. Functional Analysis
      10. Comparability Analysis
      11. Determining Comparability
      12. Functions, Assets, and Risks
      13. Contract Terms
      14. Economic and Marketing Circumstances
      15. Business Strategies
      16. Global Price Lists
      17. Establishing the Reliability of the Data
      18. Transfer Pricing Methodologies
      19. Sources of Profits and Income
      20. Abusive Tax Schemes
      21. Transfer Pricing Schemes
      22. Transfer Pricing Documentation
      23. Intragroup Services Arrangements
      24. Deduction of Expenditures Paid for Intragroup Service
      25. Determining the Amount of Intragroup Charges
      26. Services Provided by a Permanent Establishment
    9. Chapter 9: Hong Kong Challenges Abusive Tax Schemes
      1. Macroeconomic Issues
      2. Abusive Tax Schemes
      3. Transfer Pricing Schemes
      4. Lack of “Economically Significant Functions”
      5. How the Hong Kong Government Combats Abusive Tax Schemes
      6. Extreme Forms of Tax Abuse
      7. Distinguishing Tax Avoidance from Tax Evasion
      8. How the Reinvoicing Structure Operates
      9. Shifting Intangible Property: The Tax Perspective
    10. Chapter 10: Winning Hong Kong’s Landmark Transfer Pricing Case
      1. Ngai Lik Litigation
      2. Hong Kong’s Advance Ruling Determinations
      3. Hong Kong Issues Transfer Pricing Guidelines
      4. Statutory Provisions
      5. Determination by the Court of Final Appeal
      6. The Commissioner’s Determination
      7. Determination by the Board of Review
      8. Determination by the Court of First Instance
      9. Determination by the Court of Appeal
      10. The Case before the Court of Final Appeal
      11. Deficiencies in the Scheme as to Additional Annual Bulk Discounts Received by Din Wai Electronics Limited
      12. Deficiencies in the Scheme as to Manufacturing Profits
      13. Deficiencies in the Scheme as to the Relevant Years of Assessment
      14. Are the Scheme and the Tax Benefit Still Viable Bases for Section 61A Assessments?
      15. Is There a “Tax Benefit” within the Meaning of Section 61A?
      16. The Narrower Scheme and the Narrower Tax Benefit
      17. Dominant Purpose of the Narrower Scheme
      18. Board of Review’s Approach
      19. Ribeiro’s Dominant Purpose of the Narrower Scheme
      20. Commissioner’s Assessment Power
      21. Commissioner’s Exercise of the Section 61A(2) Power
      22. Board’s Approach to the Exercise of the Section 61A(2) Power
      23. Disposal of the Appeal
    11. Chapter 11: Transfer Pricing Litigation in India
      1. Background
      2. Transfer Pricing Chronology and Administration
      3. Related Parties
      4. Transfer Pricing Method Selection in India
      5. Contemporaneous Documentation in India
      6. Audit Procedures
      7. Penalties
      8. Appellate Procedures
      9. Transfer Pricing Litigation
      10. Vodafone: Hutchison Essar Acquisition
    12. Chapter 12: PE Issues Impact Indian Transfer Pricing
      1. Background
      2. Nexus, Effectively Connected Status, and Permanent Establishment
      3. Four Fact-Based Permanent Establishment Inquiries
      4. Impact of the Morgan Stanley Case
      5. Permanent Establishment Transfer Pricing Litigation in India
      6. Galileo
      7. Hotel Scopevista
      8. WorleyParsons
      9. KnoWerx Education
      10. ICICI Bank
      11. Zimmer AG
      12. Intergrafica
      13. Ranbaxy Laboratories
      14. Development Consultants
      15. Perfitti
      16. Data Software Research
      17. SNC Lavalin /Acres Inc.
      18. Airport Authority of India
      19. Radha Rani Holdings
      20. Mashreq Bank PSC
      21. Mentor Graphics (Noida) Pvt. Ltd.
      22. Millennium Infocom Technologies Ltd.
      23. Van Oord ACZ India
      24. Tokyo Marine & Fire Insurance Co. Ltd.
      25. Western Union Money Transfer
      26. Cargo Communities Network
      27. Hyundai Heavy Industries
      28. E. Gain Pvt. Ltd.
      29. Infosys International Activities in New York State
    13. Chapter 13: Taxation of Travel Services in India
      1. Sabre
      2. Galileo
      3. Installed Hardwire
    14. Chapter 14: Transfer Pricing in Indonesia
      1. Historical Background
      2. Transfer Pricing Considerations
      3. Special Attachment
    15. Chapter 15: Japan’s Directive on Transfer Pricing Operations
      1. Background
      2. Regulations and the Examples—How They Differ
      3. Operation of the Japanese Transfer Pricing Administrative Guidelines
      4. Chapter 1: Definitions and Basic Policies
      5. Chapter 2: Examination
      6. Chapter 3: Points to Note in Calculating Arm’s Length Prices
      7. Chapter 4: Treatment of Foreign Transferred Income
      8. Chapter 5: Advance Pricing Arrangements
    16. Chapter 16: Selecting the Arm’s Length Price in Japan
      1. Background
      2. Demonstrating the Selection of Arm’s Length Price
      3. Selection of the Method of Calculation of Arm’s Length Price
      4. Case 1: Use of the Comparable Uncontrolled Price Method
      5. Case 2: Use of the Resale Price Method
      6. Case 3: Use of the Cost Plus Method
      7. Case 4: Methods Consistent with the Comparable Uncontrolled Price Method
      8. Case 5: Methods Consistent with the Cost Plus Method
      9. Case 6: Transactional Net Margin Method
      10. Case 7: Contribution Profit Split Method
      11. Case 8: Residual Profit Split Method
      12. Case 9: Adjustment for Differences
    17. Chapter 17: Applying Japanese Intangible Transfer Pricing Methods
      1. Case 10: Intangibles Created by R&D and Marketing Activities
      2. Case 11: Distribution Channels and Quality Control Know-How
      3. Case 12: Know-How Accumulation through Human Resource Business Activities
      4. Case 13: Contributions to Create, Maintain, and Develop Intangible Properties
      5. Case 14: A Company Bearing only the Cost of Creation of the Intangible Properties
      6. Case 15: Intangible Properties for Employees on Loan
    18. Chapter 18: Japanese Profit Split Transfer Pricing Methods
      1. Case 16: Applying the Profit Split Method to a Series of Foreign-Related Transactions
      2. Case 17: Excluding Transactions from the Profit Split Method
      3. Case 18: Calculation of the Profit to Be Split
      4. Case 19: Differences in Labor Costs Impact the Residual Profit Split Method
      5. Case 20: Treatment of Market Fluctuations
      6. Case 21: Calculation of Basic Profit
      7. Case 22: Factors for Splitting the Residual Profit
    19. Chapter 19: Japanese Guidelines Address Diverse Transfer Pricing Issues
      1. Case 23: Determining Whether Services Provide Commercial Value
      2. Case 24: Multiple-Year Considerations
      3. Case 25: Establishing the Target Profit Margin
      4. Case 26: Critical Assumptions
    20. Chapter 20: Malaysia Advance Ruling Guidelines
      1. General Facets of the Advance Ruling Procedure in Malaysia
      2. Binding Nature of an Advance Ruling
      3. Scope of the Advance Ruling Request
      4. Circumstances in Which Malaysia Tax Authorities Will Not Issue an Advance Ruling
      5. Circumstances in Which the DGIR Can Decline to Issue an Advance Ruling
      6. Notice Requirements
      7. Advance Ruling Application Procedure
      8. Advance Ruling Application Form
      9. Information Request Requirement
      10. Issuance of the Advance Ruling
      11. Advance Ruling Finality and Disclosure
      12. The DGIR Can Withdraw the Advance Ruling
      13. Situations in Which the Advance Ruling Ceases to Apply
      14. Fee Structure
      15. Internal Procedure
    21. Chapter 21: Malaysia Transfer Pricing Guidelines
      1. Introductory Provisions
      2. Malaysian Transfer Pricing Procedure
      3. Application of the Arm’s Length Principle
      4. Malaysia’s Transfer Pricing Regime
      5. Comparability and Transfer Pricing
      6. Transfer Pricing Alternatives
      7. Comparable Uncontrolled Price Transfer Pricing Method
      8. Resale Price Transfer Pricing Method
      9. Cost Plus Transfer Pricing Method
      10. Additional Transfer Pricing Methods
      11. Profit Split Transfer Pricing Method
      12. Residual Analysis Example
      13. Transactional Net Margin Method
      14. Intangible Property
      15. Transfer Pricing Services Regulations
      16. Documentation
      17. Malaysia Issues Advance Rulings Guidelines
      18. General Facts about of the Advance Ruling Procedure in Malaysia
      19. Binding Nature of an Advance Ruling
      20. Scope of the Advance Ruling Request
      21. Advance Ruling Application Procedure
      22. Advance Ruling Application Form
      23. Information Request Requirement
      24. Issuance of the Advance Ruling
      25. Advance Ruling Finality and Disclosure
      26. The DGIR Can Withdraw the Advance Ruling
      27. Situations in Which the Advance Ruling Ceases to Apply
      28. Fee Structure
      29. Internal Procedure
    22. Chapter 22: New Zealand Transfer Pricing Developments
      1. New Zealand Transfer Pricing Guidelines
      2. Initial Developments
      3. Arm’s Length Principle and the Pricing Methods
      4. Basics of the Transfer of Intangible Property
      5. Profit Split Method and the Joint Ownership of Intangible Property
      6. Profit Split Method
      7. Residual Profit Split Analysis
      8. Transactional Net Margin Method
      9. Market Penetration Techniques
      10. Australia’s Four-Step Process to Ascertain the Arm’s Length Approach
      11. Documentation
      12. Documentation and the Burden of Proof Rule
      13. Inland Revenue Seeks to Ascertain the Risks to the Revenue
      14. Retention of Records
      15. Transfer Pricing in Countries without a Double Tax Agreement
      16. Intangible Property Audits
      17. Trade Intangibles and Marketing Intangibles
      18. Ascertaining the Arm’s Length Amount for Intangible Property
      19. Ascertaining the Ownership of Intangible Property
      20. Factors in Ascertaining the Nature of Intangible Property
      21. Terms and Conditions of the Intangible Property Transfer
      22. Valuing Intangible Property
      23. Non-Owner’s Marketing Activities
      24. Applying the Profit Split Method to Intangible Property
      25. Intangible Property Planning
    23. Chapter 23: Philippine Transfer Pricing Regulations
      1. Scope of the Philippine Provisions
      2. Philippine-Specific Provisions
    24. Chapter 24: Singapore Implements Advance Pricing Arrangement Procedure
      1. Objectives of the Supplementary Circular
      2. What the Supplementary Circular Provides
      3. Minimum Information Requirements
      4. Considerations for Accepting the APA
      5. Pre-Filing APA Process
      6. Formal APA Submission Procedures
      7. APA Review and Negotiations: Considerations and Requirements
      8. APA Roll-Back
      9. Discontinuation of the APA Process
      10. Nonsubmission of the APA Application
      11. Insufficient Level of Support during the APA Process
      12. Absence of Communication
      13. Effective Date
    25. Chapter 25: Singapore Transfer Pricing Consultation Process
      1. Background
      2. Objectives of the Transfer Pricing Consultation
      3. Issuance of the Transfer Pricing Questionnaire
      4. Transfer Pricing Consultation
      5. Transfer Pricing Questionnaire
    26. Chapter 26: Singapore Transfer Pricing Guidelines
      1. Key Concepts and Arm’s Length Principles
      2. Three-Step Approach
      3. Comparison of Economically Significant Functions
      4. Comparable Uncontrolled Price Method
      5. Transfer Pricing Method Selection
      6. Transfer Pricing Documentation
      7. Mutual Agreement Procedures
      8. Advance Pricing Agreements
      9. Comments
    27. Chapter 27: Singapore Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Related Party Loans and Services
      1. Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Related Party Loans
      2. Two Loan Categories
      3. Facts and Circumstances to Determine Comparability Analysis
      4. Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Related Party Services
      5. Direct Charging versus Indirect Charging of Services
      6. Ascertaining the Arm’s Length Fee
      7. Routine Services and the 5% Markup
      8. Cost Pooling Contracts
      9. Strict Cost Pass-through
      10. Documentation
    28. Chapter 28: South Korea Transfer Pricing
      1. Background
      2. Related Party Transfer Pricing Relationships in Korea
      3. Computation of Indirect Ownership
      4. Economic Interest and Control
      5. Transfer Pricing Method Alternatives
      6. Information Requests and Documents
      7. Transfer Pricing Audits
      8. Permanent Establishment, Competent Authority, and Advance Pricing Agreements
      9. Thin Capitalization and Tax Havens
      10. Applying the “Most Reasonable Method” Standard to Determine Arm’s Length Price
      11. Underpayments and Overpayments
      12. Selecting Transfer Pricing Methods
      13. Reporting Methods for Determining Arm’s Length Price
      14. Advance Pricing Arrangements
      15. Sanctions Imposed on Failure to Comply with the Data Request
      16. Penalties
      17. Thin Capitalization Rules
      18. Debt under an Arm’s Length Situation
      19. Anti–Tax Haven Rules
      20. Scope of the “Tax Haven” Jurisdiction
      21. Computation of the Reserved Income Distributed Amount
      22. Gift Tax on Property Located Outside Korea
      23. Mutual Agreement Procedure
      24. International Tax Cooperation
    29. Chapter 29: Sri Lanka Transfer Pricing
      1. Associated Undertakings
      2. Arm’s Length Price
      3. Documentation
      4. Threshold for Applying Sri Lanka Transfer Pricing
      5. Advance Pricing Agreements
      6. Burden of Proof
      7. Implementation
      8. Annex 1: Test of Control—Associated Undertaking
      9. Annex 2: Arm’s Length Pricing Methodologies
      10. Annex 3: Appropriate Pricing Methodology—Factors to Consider
      11. Annex 4: Comparability of an Uncontrolled Transaction—Factors to Consider
      12. Annex 5: Prescribed Documentation
      13. Suggested Supporting Documents
    30. Chapter 30: Taiwan Transfer Pricing
      1. Enactment of the Transfer Pricing Statute
      2. Transfer Pricing Regulations
    31. Chapter 31: Thailand Transfer Pricing
      1. Transfer Pricing Booklet
      2. Part 1: Tax Legislation Impacting Transfer Pricing
      3. Revenue Department of Thailand Departmental Instruction Paw 113/2545
      4. Part 2: Methodologies in Calculating Market Price
      5. Part 3: Process in Establishing the Market Price
      6. Process of Establishing the Market Price
      7. Guidelines on the Determination of Market Price
    32. Chapter 32: Vietnam Transfer Pricing
      1. Expansive View of Related Party Ownership
      2. Transfer Pricing Methods
      3. Documentation Requirements
      4. Compliance Considerations
  8. Part Two: Advanced Applications
    1. Chapter 33: Services Transfer Pricing in Hong Kong and in Singapore
      1. Services Transfer Pricing in Hong Kong and in Singapore: Basic Comparison
      2. Hong Kong Services Transfer Pricing Methods
      3. Shareholder Activity and Stewardship Functions
      4. Financial Services Audit Example
      5. Deduction of Expenditures Paid for Intragroup Services
      6. “Objective Commercial Explanation” Standard
      7. Determining the Amount of Intragroup Charges
      8. Services Provided by a Permanent Establishment
      9. Scope of Activities for Related Party Services in Singapore
      10. Singapore Transfer Pricing Services Guidelines
      11. Direct Charging versus Indirect Charging of Services
      12. Ascertaining the Arm’s Length Fee
      13. Routine Services and the 5% Markup in Singapore
      14. Cost Pooling Contracts
      15. Cost Pooling versus Pass-Through Allocation Alternatives
      16. Documentation
    2. Chapter 34: Permanent Establishment Parameters: Hong Kong versus India
      1. General Permanent Establishment Considerations
      2. Permanent Establishment Considerations in India
      3. Permanent Establishment Considerations in Hong Kong
    3. Chapter 35: Pacific Tax Administrators Coordinate Transfer Pricing Documentation
      1. Background
      2. PATA Provisions
      3. Three Operative Principles
      4. Specific Mandatory Documentation
    4. Chapter 36: Shared Services and Cost Pooling Arrangements in the United States and Singapore
      1. Historical Background
      2. Explanation of the Shared Services Arrangement Provisions
      3. Shared Services Arrangements
      4. Services Cost Method Examples
      5. Singapore Shared Services Arrangements
    5. Chapter 37: South Korea–Japan Bilateral Investment Treaty
      1. Background
      2. U.S. Involvement in BITs
      3. Arbitration
      4. ICSID Arbitration
      5. Treaty Shopping within the Bilateral Investment Treaty Context
      6. Tax Provisions within the Korea–Japan Bilateral Investment Treaty
    6. Chapter 38: China–Taiwan Trade
      1. Taiwan and China: A History Lesson
      2. Economic Considerations
      3. One-China Policy
      4. Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement
      5. Tax Considerations
      6. Choice of Transfer Pricing Method
      7. Functional Analysis
      8. Analysis of the Production Activities
      9. Fact Pattern
      10. Accounting and Tax Operations
      11. Permanent Establishment
      12. Taiwanese–Chinese Electronics Company
      13. Transactional Profit Split Method Criteria
      14. Most Appropriate Transfer Pricing Method
      15. Allocation Key System
      16. Strong Correlation Standard
      17. Selecting among Allocation Keys
      18. APA Process
    7. Chapter 39: Malaysia–Singapore Allocation Keys
      1. Importance of Allocation Keys
      2. Selection of the Real Estate Leasing Example
      3. When the Transactional Profit Split Method Is the “Most Applicable” Transfer Pricing Method
      4. Specialized Services
      5. Applying the Transactional Profit Split Method
      6. Four Allocation Keys Categories
      7. Key Functions
      8. Selecting Potential Allocation Keys
      9. Residential Condominium Leasing Example
      10. Residential Condominium Database
      11. Selecting among Allocation Keys
      12. “Strong Correlation” Standard
      13. Allocation Keys
      14. Transfer Pricing Strategies
      15. Corporate Tax Strategy
      16. Malaysia’s Tax Strategy
    8. Chapter 40: Permanent Establishment Parameters
      1. OECD’s Permanent Establishment Provisions
      2. Consequences of Permanent Establishment Status
      3. Consequences of a Permanent Establishment to Business
      4. Transfer Pricing and Permanent Establishment
      5. Overall Tax Considerations
      6. Potential for the Imposition of Two Levels of Taxation
      7. OECD Approach to Determine Permanent Establishment
      8. Hong Kong Applies the OECD Permanent Establishment Provisions
      9. How Hong Kong Applies the Permanent Establishment Provisions
      10. Common Law Permanent Establishment Criteria
      11. Direct Activities
      12. Agency Relationships
      13. Shareholder Activities in Subsidiaries’ Locations
      14. Presence of Personnel Shifts among Entities
      15. Entirety of the Operations
      16. Declining Businesses
      17. “Preparatory to” and “Auxiliary from” Exemptions
      18. Time Spent
      19. Will the OECD Approach Prevail?
  9. About the Authors
  10. Index