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## Appendix AMathematical Preliminaries and Notation

This appendix gives some definitions of fundamental mathematical concepts that are used in AI, but are traditionally taught in other courses. It also introduces some notation and data structures that are used in various parts of the book.

### A.1Discrete Mathematics

The mathematical concepts we build on include:

sets A set has elements (members). We write s S if s is an element of set S. The elements in a set define the set, so that two sets are equal if they have the same elements.
tuples An n-tuple is an ordered grouping of n elements, written x1,…, xn. A 2-tuple is a pair, and a 3-tuple is a triple ...

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