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Art of Digital Audio, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Described as "the most comprehensive book on digital audio to date", it is widely acclaimed as an industry "bible". Covering the very latest developments in digital audio technology, it provides an thorough introduction to the theory as well as acting as an authoritative and comprehensive professional reference source. Everything you need is here from the fundamental principles to the latest applications, written in an award-winning style with clear explanations from first principles.



New material covered includes internet audio, PC audio technology, DVD, MPEG audio compression, digital audio broadcasting and audio networks.

Whether you are in the field of audio engineering, sound recording, music technology, broadcasting and communications media or audio design and installation, this book has it all. Written by a leading international audio specialist, who conducts professional seminars and workshops around the world, the book has been road tested for many years by professional seminar attendees and students to ensure their needs are taken into account, and all the right information is covered.

This new edition now includes:

Internet audio
PC Audio technology
DVD
MPEG Audio compression
Digital Audio Broadcasting
Audio networks

Digital audio professionals will find everything they need here, from the fundamental principles to the latest applications, written in an award-winning style with clear explanations from first principles.

John Watkinson is an international consultant in audio, video and data recording. He is a Fellow of the AES, a member of the British Computer Society and a chartered information systems practitioner. He presents lectures, seminars, conference papers and training courses worldwide. He is the author of many other Focal Press books, including: the Kraszna-Krausz award winning MPEG-2; The Art of Digital Audio; An Introduction to Digital Video; The Art of Sound Reproduction; An Introduction to Digital Audio; TV Fundamentals and Audio for Television. He is also co-author, with Francis Rumsey, of The Digital Interface Handbook, and contributor to the Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook, 3rd edition.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Dedication
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. Chapter 1 Why digital?
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 What is digital audio?
    3. 1.3 Why binary?
    4. 1.4 Why digital?
    5. 1.5 Some digital audio processes outlined
    6. 1.6 The sampler
    7. 1.7 The programmable delay
    8. 1.8 Time compression
    9. 1.9 Synchronization
    10. 1.10 Error correction and concealment
    11. 1.11 Channel coding
    12. 1.12 Compression
    13. 1.13 Hard disk recorders
    14. 1.14 The PCM adaptor
    15. 1.15 An open-reel digital recorder
    16. 1.16 Rotary head digital recorders
    17. 1.17 Digital Compact Cassette
    18. 1.18 Digital audio broadcasting
    19. 1.19 Audio in PCs
    20. 1.20 Networks
    21. Reference
  10. Chapter 2 Some audio principles
    1. 2.1 The physics of sound
    2. 2.2 The speed of sound
    3. 2.3 Wavelength
    4. 2.4 Periodic and aperiodic signals
    5. 2.5 Sound and the ear
    6. 2.6 Hearing
    7. 2.7 The cochlea
    8. 2.8 Mental processes
    9. 2.9 Level and loudness
    10. 2.10 Frequency discrimination
    11. 2.11 Critical bands
    12. 2.12 Beats
    13. 2.13 Music and the ear
    14. 2.14 The sensation of pitch
    15. 2.15 Frequency response and linearity
    16. 2.16 The sine wave
    17. 2.17 Root mean square measurements
    18. 2.18 The deciBel
    19. 2.19 Audio level metering
    20. 2.20 Vectors
    21. 2.21 Phase angle and power factor
    22. 2.22 Audio cabling
    23. 2.23 EMC
    24. 2.24 Electrical safety
    25. References
  11. Chapter 3 Digital principles
    1. 3.1 Pure binary code
    2. 3.2 Two’s complement
    3. 3.3 Introduction to digital processing
    4. 3.4 Logic elements
    5. 3.5 Storage elements
    6. 3.6 Binary adding
    7. 3.7 The computer
    8. 3.8 The processor
    9. 3.9 Interrupts
    10. 3.10 Programmable timers
    11. 3.11 Timebase compression and correction
    12. 3.12 Gain control
    13. 3.13 Digital faders and controls
    14. 3.14 A digital mixer
    15. 3.15 Effects
    16. 3.16 The phase-locked loop
    17. 3.17 Multiplexing principles
    18. 3.18 Packets
    19. 3.19 Statistical multiplexing
    20. 3.20 Filters
    21. 3.21 Transforms
    22. 3.22 FIR and IIR filters
    23. 3.23 FIR filters
    24. 3.24 Sampling rate conversion
    25. 3.25 IIR Filters
    26. 3.26 The z-transform
    27. 3.27 Bandpass filters
    28. 3.28 Higher-order filters: cascading
    29. 3.29 Pole/zero positions
    30. 3.30 The Fourier transform
    31. 3.31 The discrete cosine transform (DCT)
    32. 3.32 The wavelet transform
    33. 3.33 Modulo-n arithmetic
    34. 3.34 The Galois field
    35. 3.35 Noise and probability
    36. References
  12. Chapter 4 Conversion
    1. 4.1 Introduction to conversion
    2. 4.2 Sampling and aliasing
    3. 4.3 Reconstruction
    4. 4.4 Filter design
    5. 4.5 Choice of sampling rate
    6. 4.6 Sample and hold
    7. 4.7 Sampling clock jitter
    8. 4.8 Aperture effect
    9. 4.9 Quantizing
    10. 4.10 Quantizing error
    11. 4.11 Introduction to dither
    12. 4.12 Requantizing and digital dither
    13. 4.13 Dither techniques
      1. 4.13.1 Rectangular pdf dither
      2. 4.13.2 Triangular pdf dither
      3. 4.13.3 Gaussian pdf dither
    14. 4.14 Basic digital-to-analog conversion
    15. 4.15 Basic analog-to-digital conversion
    16. 4.16 Alternative convertors
    17. 4.17 Oversampling
    18. 4.18 Oversampling without noise shaping
    19. 4.19 Noise shaping
    20. 4.20 Noise-shaping ADCs
    21. 4.21 A one-bit DAC
    22. 4.22 One-bit noise-shaping ADCs
    23. 4.23 Operating levels in digital audio
    24. References
  13. Chapter 5 Compression
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Lossless and perceptive coding
    3. 5.3 Compression principles
    4. 5.4 Codec level calibration
    5. 5.5 Quality measurement
    6. 5.6 The limits
    7. 5.7 Some guidelines
    8. 5.8 Audio compression tools
    9. 5.9 Sub-band coding
    10. 5.10 Transform coding
    11. 5.11 Compression formats
    12. 5.12 MPEG Audio compression
    13. 5.13 MPEG Layer I
    14. 5.14 MPEG Layer II
    15. 5.15 MPEG Layer III
    16. 5.16 MPEG-2 AAC
    17. 5.17 apt-X
    18. 5.18 Dolby AC-3
    19. 5.19 ATRAC
    20. References
  14. Chapter 6 Digital recording and transmission principles
    1. 6.1 Introduction to the channel
    2. 6.2 Types of transmission channel
    3. 6.3 Types of recording medium
    4. 6.4 Magnetism
    5. 6.5 Magnetic recording
    6. 6.6 Azimuth recording and rotary heads
    7. 6.7 Optical disks
    8. 6.8 Magneto-optical disks
    9. 6.9 Equalization
    10. 6.10 Data separation
    11. 6.11 Slicing
    12. 6.12 Jitter rejection
    13. 6.13 Channel coding
    14. 6.14 Recording-oriented codes
    15. 6.15 Transmission-oriented codes
    16. 6.16 General-purpose codes
    17. 6.17 Miller2 code
    18. 6.18 Group codes
    19. 6.19 4/5 code of MADI
    20. 6.20 2/3 code
    21. 6.21 EFM code in CD
    22. 6.22 The 8/10 group code of DAT
    23. 6.23 Tracking signals
    24. 6.24 Convolutional RLL codes
    25. 6.25 Graceful degradation
    26. 6.26 Randomizing
    27. 6.27 Communications codes
    28. 6.28 Convolutional randomizing
    29. 6.29 Synchronizing
    30. References
  15. Chapter 7 Error correction
    1. 7.1 Sensitivity of message to error
    2. 7.2 Error mechanisms
    3. 7.3 Basic error correction
    4. 7.4 Error handling
    5. 7.5 Concealment by interpolation
    6. 7.6 Parity
    7. 7.7 Block and convolutional codes
    8. 7.8 Hamming code
    9. 7.9 Hamming distance
    10. 7.10 Cyclic codes
    11. 7.11 Punctured codes
    12. 7.12 Applications of cyclic codes
    13. 7.13 Burst correction
    14. 7.14 Introduction to the Reed–Solomon codes
    15. 7.15 R–S calculations
    16. 7.16 Correction by erasure
    17. 7.17 Interleaving
    18. 7.18 Product codes
    19. 7.19 Introduction to error correction in DAT
    20. 7.20 Editing interleaved recordings
    21. Appendix 7.1 Calculation of Reed–Solomon generator polynomials
    22. References
  16. Chapter 8 Transmission
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Introduction to AES/EBU interface
    3. 8.3 The electrical interface
    4. 8.4 Frame structure
    5. 8.5 Talkback in auxiliary data
    6. 8.6 Professional channel status
    7. 8.7 Consumer channel status
    8. 8.8 User bits
    9. 8.9 MADI – multi-channel digital audio interface
    10. 8.10 MADI data transmission
    11. 8.11 MADI frame structure
    12. 8.12 MADI audio channel format
    13. 8.13 Fibre-optic interfacing
    14. 8.14 Synchronizing
    15. 8.15 Asynchronous operation
    16. 8.16 Routing
    17. 8.17 Networks
    18. 8.18 Introduction to NICAM 728
    19. 8.19 Audio in digital television broadcasting
    20. 8.20 Packets and time stamps
    21. 8.21 MPEG transport streams
    22. 8.22 Clock references
    23. 8.23 Program Specific Information (PSI)
    24. 8.24 Multiplexing
    25. 8.25 Introduction to DAB
    26. 8.26 DAB principles
    27. References
  17. Chapter 9 Digital audio tape recorders
    1. 9.1 Types of recorder
    2. 9.2 PCM adaptors
    3. 9.3 Introduction to DAT
    4. 9.4 Track following in DAT
    5. 9.5 Aligning for interchange
    6. 9.6 DAT data channel
    7. 9.7 Sound and subcode in shuttle
    8. 9.8 Timecode in DAT
    9. 9.9 Non-tracking replay
    10. 9.10 Quarter-inch rotary
    11. 9.11 Half-inch and 8 mm rotary formats
    12. 9.12 Digital audio in VTRs
    13. 9.13 Stationary-head recorders
    14. 9.14 DASH format
    15. 9.15 DCC – digital compact cassette
    16. Appendix 9.1 Timecode for Pro R conversion
    17. References
  18. Chapter 10 Magnetic disk drives
    1. 10.1 Types of disk drive
    2. 10.2 Disk terminology
    3. 10.3 Structure of disk
    4. 10.4 Principle of flying head
    5. 10.5 Reading and writing
    6. 10.6 Moving the heads
    7. 10.7 Controlling a seek
    8. 10.8 Rotation
    9. 10.9 Servo-surface disks
    10. 10.10 Soft sectoring
    11. 10.11 Winchester technology
    12. 10.12 Servo-surface Winchester drives
    13. 10.13 Rotary positioners
    14. 10.14 Floppy disks
    15. 10.15 Error handling
    16. 10.16 RAID arrays
    17. 10.17 The disk controller
    18. 10.18 Digital audio disk systems
    19. 10.19 Arranging the audio data on disk
    20. 10.20 Spooling files
    21. 10.21 Broadcast applications
    22. 10.22 Sampling rate and playing time
    23. References
  19. Chapter 11 Digital audio editing
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Editing with random access media
    3. 11.3 Editing on recording media
    4. 11.4 The structure of an editor
    5. 11.5 Timecode
    6. 11.6 Locating the edit point
    7. 11.7 Editing with disk drives
    8. 11.8 CD mastering
    9. 11.9 Editing in DAT
    10. 11.10 Editing in open-reel digital recorders
    11. 11.11 Jump editing
    12. References
  20. Chapter 12 Digital audio in optical disks
    1. 12.1 Types of optical disk
    2. 12.2 CD, DVD and MD contrasted
    3. 12.3 CD and MD – disk construction
    4. 12.4 Rejecting surface contamination
    5. 12.5 Playing optical disks
    6. 12.6 Focus systems
    7. 12.7 Tracking systems
    8. 12.8 Typical pickups
    9. 12.9 DVD and CD readout in detail
    10. 12.10 How optical disks are made
    11. 12.11 Direct metal mastering
    12. 12.12 MiniDisc read/write in detail
    13. 12.13 How recordable MiniDiscs are made
    14. 12.14 Channel code of CD and MiniDisc
    15. 12.15 Deserialization
    16. 12.16 Error-correction strategy
    17. 12.17 Track layout of MD
    18. 12.18 CD subcode
    19. 12.19 MD table of contents
    20. 12.20 CD player structure
    21. 12.21 MD recorder/player structure
    22. 12.22 Structure of a DVD player
    23. References
  21. Chapter 13 Sound quality considerations
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Information capacity
    3. 13.3 Loudspeaker problems
    4. 13.4 Subjective and objective testing
    5. 13.5 Objective testing
    6. 13.6 Subjective testing
    7. 13.7 Digital audio quality
    8. 13.8 Use of high sampling rates
    9. 13.9 Digital audio interface quality
    10. 13.10 Compression in stereo
    11. References
  22. Index