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Architectures for Distributed and Complex M-Learning Systems: Applying Intelligent Technologies

Book Description

Architectures for Distributed and Complex M-Learning Systems: Applying Intelligent Technologies explores state-of-the-art software architectures and platforms used to support distributed and mobile e-learning systems. Containing research from leading international experts, this advanced publication provides useful references to support learning practices for academicians, researchers, and practitioners.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Foreword
    1. REFERENCES
  5. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. MAIN CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS BOOK
    3. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
      1. Section 1: Architectures, Frameworks, and Platforms for Mobile Learning Systems
      2. Section 2: Technological Advances in Support for Mobile Learning
      3. Section 3: Architecture Applications and Case Studies on Mobile Learning Practices
    4. TARGETED AUDIENCE AND LAST WORDS
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. 1. Architectures, Frameworks, and Platforms for Mobile Learning Systems
    1. 1. Developing Tools that Support Effective Mobile and Game Based Learning: The COLLAGE Platform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Linking Formal and Informal Learning
        2. The Mobile Learning Paradigm
        3. Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences through Games
        4. Two Further Conceptual Pillars of COLLAGE
          1. Adaptive and Adaptable Learning Environments
          2. Content Origin and Authoring
        5. Other Related Projects
      4. THE COLLAGE PROJECT
        1. Added Value
        2. Contextual Learning
        3. The Educational Activities
      5. THE COLLAGE SYSTEM
        1. The COLLAGE Platform
        2. The Two-Way SMS System
          1. Sending the Replies
          2. Receiving the SMS Messages
          3. Statistical Results
          4. Server Side Implementation
          5. Locating Mobile Users through "GpsData" Application
        3. Mapping Technology
        4. Using the COLLAGE Platform
          1. The Administrator Panel
            1. Add a School
            2. Add a New Author (Teacher Account)
          2. Author's Area
            1. Create a Team
            2. Add a New Site
            3. Add a New Learning Path
            4. Add a New Question for an Existing Path
            5. Add Questions from an Existing Path
            6. Add a New Territory
            7. Add a New SMS Question
            8. Edit Games and Teams
            9. Edit Questions/Tasks
            10. Edit Logbook
            11. Send an SMS Question
            12. Answer Statistics
            13. View Logbooks
            14. View Teams Positions
          3. Play a Game
            1. Selecting a Site/Course
          4. The Logbook - The Learning Scenario
          5. Geographic Territories and Users' Localization
          6. Library Section
        5. Testing the COLLAGE Platform with Different Terminal Devices
          1. Ideal Device
          2. Accessing COLLAGE Platform with Different Devices
            1. NOKIA 6630 (Symbian 60) Smartphone
            2. qTek 9000 (Windows Mobile 5.0)
            3. iPAQ hw6515 (Windows Mobile 2003)
          3. Compatibility with Other Devices
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    2. 2. Designing an Architecture to Provide Ubiquity in Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Mobile Computing in the Learning Process
        2. Platform for Advanced Learning Systems
        3. Related Projects
      4. CAMPUS UBICUO: A PLATFORM BASED ON MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Campus Ubicuo Architecture
        2. Involved Technologies and Hardware Devices
        3. Campus Ubicuo Development
          1. GNU/LinEx Mobile
          2. Movicuo
          3. SARI
          4. MeUbicuo
      5. FUTURE WORK
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    3. 3. MobiGlam: A Framework of Interoperability and Adaptivity for Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR MOBILE LEARNING
        1. In the Mobile Context
        2. In the Educational Context
      4. HOW TO DESIGN FOR MOBILE LEARNING?
        1. A Mobile Learning Scenario
      5. AN OUTLINE OF A SOLUTION
        1. Content Modelling
          1. A Conceptual Model for Mobile Activities
        2. Behaviour Modelling
          1. Database Interfaces
          2. Navigational Interfaces
          3. Service Call Interface
        3. Putting it all Together
          1. The Middleware
          2. A Light-Weight Browser
          3. Messaging and Notifications
      6. ADAPTIVITY TECHNIQUES
        1. Device Recognition
        2. Content Adaptation
        3. Parsing Content
      7. EXPERIENCES
      8. REFERENCES
    4. 4. SW-Architecture for Device Independent Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
        1. N-tier Software Architectures
        2. XML, HTML, XHTML MP, CHTML and PDF
        3. Java and JavaScript
        4. Micro-Browser, Web Service & Ajax
      4. DEVICE DEPENDENT CONTENT PRESENTATION
        1. General Software Architecture for Device Independent Systems
        2. Steps for Device Dependent Content Presentation
        3. Device Identification
          1. Device Identification by WURFL
          2. Device Identification by W3C with UAProf
          3. Device Identification by ICAT with UAProf
        4. Device Classification
          1. Device Classification by WURFL
          2. Device Classification by W3C
          3. Device Classification by ICAT
        5. Content Adaptation
          1. Content Adaptation of WURFL - WALL
          2. Content Adaptation by W3C - DIAL
          3. Content Adaptation by ICAT
        6. Design Patterns
      5. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICAT SYSTEM
        1. Device Identification
        2. Device Classification
        3. Content Adaptation
        4. ICAT System Implementation
      6. COMPARISON W3C, WURF, ICAT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. 5. A Ubiquitous and Pervasive Learning Framework: Linking the Learner, the Workplace, and the Education Institute
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Technology Triggering a Generational Divide
        2. Baby Boomers, a Retiring Workforce
        3. Informal and Workplace Learning
        4. Population Acceptance of Ubiquitous Technology
      4. A MOBILE LEARNING ARCHITECTURE: UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGY PROVIDING AN EDUCATIONAL SOLUTION
        1. Implementing Ubiquitous Technology in the Education Domain
        2. Responding to a Self-Publishing Generation
        3. The Inclusion of Ubiquity and Pervasiveness in the Learning Architecture Adopted to Support Communities of Learning Practice
        4. Inclusion of Synchronous Technology Delivered Education
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES
      7. REFERENCES
    6. 6. A Mobile Service Platform for Trustworthy E-Learning Service Provisioning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPROACH TAKEN
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
        2. Solutions and Recommendations
      5. M-LEARNING SERVICE PLATFORM
        1. RFID Based Data Capturing
        2. Information Relay and Delivery
        3. Information Access
        4. Trusted MiQ-SP
          1. Trusted Data Integration
          2. Reliable Information Delivery and Access
          3. Sensing Data Integrity
      6. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Platform Architecture
        2. Collaboration Implementation
        3. Application Portal Implementation
        4. Cross Domain Data Access
        5. Computing Resource Management
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  8. 2. Technological Advances in Support for Mobile Learning
    1. 7. Mobile Web 2.0: Bridging Learning Contexts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Defining Mobile Learning
        2. Context Bridging
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Why Mobile?
        2. Pedagogy and Today's Learners
        3. Web 2.0
        4. Mobile Pedagogies
        5. Intentional Disruption
        6. Supporting Mobile Learning
      4. MLEARNING CASE STUDIES
        1. Methodology and Participants
        2. Communities of Practice
        3. Scaffolding the Learning
        4. Pedagogical Design
        5. Disruptive Pedagogical Implications
        6. Redesigning the 2008 Trials
        7. Example Mobile Web 2.0 Scenarios
          1. Diploma Landscape Design Student 2007
          2. Bachelor of Product Design Student 2008
          3. Diploma of Contemporary Music Student 2008
          4. Diploma of Landscape Architecture Student 2008
        8. Student Feedback
        9. Staff Feedback
        10. The Future of Mobile Web 2.0
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. APPENDIX
        1. Questions for Discussion
          1. Focus Group Questions
    2. 8. Mobile Grids: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation M-Learning Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The M-Learning World
        2. Mobile Grids
      4. MOBILE GRIDS: ENABLING M-LEARNING APPLICATIONS
        1. The Business Need
        2. Mobile Grid-Enabled M-Learning Case Study
        3. Technical Requirements
      5. GENERAL MOBILE GRID ARCHITECTURE
        1. Overview
        2. General Architecture
        3. Main Components
          1. Base VO (BVO) Management
          2. Operative VO (OpVO) Management
          3. Business Process and Workflow
          4. Mobility and Nomadism Support
          5. Identity Management
          6. Context Management
          7. Discovery
          8. Accounting and Charging
      6. CONCERNS, CHALLENGES AND FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. 9. Intelligent M-Learning Frameworks: Information and Communication Technology Applied in a Laptop Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND RESEARCH
        1. Blended M-Learning and Digital Natives
        2. Socio-Cultural Theory as a Framework for Mobile Learning
        3. M-Learning and Literacy
      4. BACKGROUND
        1. Education Setting
        2. The Problem
      5. THE RESEARCH STUDY
        1. The Questions
        2. Participants and Procedures
        3. Design
          1. Face-to-Face Sessions
          2. Wireless Laptop Computers
          3. Learning Management System
          4. Multimedia Videos
          5. MSN Instant Messaging
          6. Vocabulary
          7. Blog Postings
          8. Discussion Board
        4. Data Collection
          1. Pre-Research Study
        5. Results and Findings
          1. Limitations of the Study
          2. Mobility and Spaces
          3. Reactions to ICTELT Blended mLearning
          4. Roles
          5. Discussion Board Postings
          6. Writing Proficiency
          7. Vocabulary
          8. WebCT Course
          9. MSN IM
          10. Reflective Blogs
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. 10. Integrating Ontology-Based Content Management into a Mobilized Learning Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECTION ONE - BACKGROUND
        1. Problems with Bologna System
        2. Connection to M-Learning
        3. Students' Attitudes towards Mobile Learning
        4. Mobilized Content Delivery
      4. SECTION TWO - CONTENT DEVELOPMENT WITH ONTOLOGIES
        1. Educational Ontology
        2. Studio Architecture
        3. Content Development Process
        4. mLMS
          1. Interaction
          2. Content Management
          3. User Rights Management
        5. User Scenario
      5. FUTURE PLANS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    5. 11. Context-Awareness and Distributed Events in Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
        1. Pedagogical Issues
        2. Mobile Learning
        3. Contextual Information in Information Systems
          1. The Classification of Contextual Information
          2. Context-Aware Services
          3. Context-Aware System Characteristics
          4. Types of Contextual Components
        4. Contextual Information in Mobile Learning
        5. A Generalized Model for Context-Aware Mobile Learning System Architecture
      4. MILE (MOBILE & INTERACTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT)
        1. System Architecture
          1. Main System Characteristics
          2. Main System Libraries
          3. Main System Services
          4. The Client Application and Applicative Modules
          5. The Communication Model
          6. Three-Tiered Data Architecture
        2. The Module of Contextual Information
          1. Contextual Modules in the MILE System
            1. Contextual Widgets in the MILE System
            2. Contextual Subscriptions and Actions in the MILE System
        3. The Use of Distributed Events in the MILE System
          1. UDP as Base Protocol for the Distributed Events Protocol
          2. Event Messages
          3. The Distributed Events Protocol
      5. APPLICATION MODULES
        1. MNoteBook Module
        2. Mcollaboration Module
        3. MwhiteBoard Module
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PLANS
      7. REFERENCES
    6. 12. 'Intelligent Context' for Personalized Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECTION ONE: BACKGROUND
        1. Context and Context-Awareness
        2. Context-Awareness
        3. Context-Awareness and Mobile Learning
        4. Context
      4. RELATED RESEARCH
        1. The Application of Context-Awareness
        2. Personalisation and Adaptation in Mobile Systems
        3. Ad-Hoc Networks
        4. Approaches to Rule-Based Systems
      5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
      6. CONTEXT MODELLING
      7. ONTOLOGY AND THE SEMANTIC WEB
        1. A Semantic Ontology: A Simple Example
        2. The Semantic Web
        3. The Web Ontology Language (OWL)
        4. The Jena 2 Semantic Web Framework
      8. SECTION TWO: 'INTELLIGENT CONTEXT' - INTRODUCTION
      9. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
      10. CONTEXT MATCHING
        1. The Context-Matching Algorithm
      11. CONTEXT PROCESSING
      12. CONTEXT PROCESSING RULES(CPR)
        1. Context Processing Logic Functions
      13. CONTEXT REASONING AND INFERENCE
        1. The Context Reasoning Ontology
      14. EVALUATION AND SIMULATION
        1. Context-Reasoning Example
          1. A Location Based On-Line Cooperative Computing Scenario
        2. Scenario-Based Evaluation
          1. On-Line Mobile Learning and Collaboration Scenario
      15. DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
        1. Future Work and Open Research Questions
          1. Data Capture
          2. Data Description
          3. Data Storage
          4. Statistical Context Processing
          5. The Development of a Modular Context Middleware
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ENDNOTES
  9. 3. Architecture Applications and Case Studies on Mobile Learning Practices
    1. 13. Schools in Action: Pedagogical Evaluation of COLLAGE, a Case Study on Mobile and Location Game-Based Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EVALUATING MOBILE AND LOCATION-BASED SCENARIOS
      4. COLLAGE, A MOBILE GAME-BASED AND LOCATION-BASED APPROACH
      5. THE COLLAGE SCENARIOS AND IMPLEMENTATION
        1. The Carnuntum Scenario
          1. Learning Objectives and Implementation
        2. The Mozart Scenario
        3. The Knossos Scenario
          1. Learning Objectives and Implementation
        4. Fodele (Crete)
          1. Learning Objectives and Implementation
        5. The Ancient Agora / Tholos Scenario
          1. Learning Objectives and Implementation
      6. COLLAGE PEDAGOGICAL EVALUATION
        1. Evaluation Design
        2. Evaluation Parameters and Instruments
      7. SUMMARY OF EVALUATION RESULTS
        1. Student Feedback
        2. Teacher Feedback
        3. Platform
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
        1. Engagement
        2. Games
        3. Scenario Co-Design
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    2. 14. Technical Evaluation of Wireless Communications in a Mobile Learning Architecture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Multimedia Communications
        2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
          1. ISM Bands
          2. Spread Spectrum
          3. Interferences
      4. ANALYTICAL STUDY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE PROPOSED MOBILE LEARNING ARCHITECTURE
        1. Proof Planning
          1. Multimedia Technologies in Mobile Learning Environments
          2. Deployment Scenario
          3. Test Bed
          4. Tools and Wireshark Extensions Used in the Measurement Process
            1. Performance Window
            2. Performance Analysis Window
        2. Evaluation Results of the M-Learning Architecture Proposed
          1. Evaluation of Campus Ubicuo in Multimedia Transmissions
            1. Audio Transmission
            2. Video Transmission in Real Time
            3. Resilience Test to the UMTS Network
          2. Evaluation of the Effects among the Wireless Technologies Used in the Mobile Learning Architecture
            1. An Example of an Interference Source
            2. Radio Frequency Jamming Devices
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    3. 15. Supporting Mobile Access to VLE Resources through MobiGlam
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE ACCESS TO LEARNING SERVICES IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      4. THE EVALUATION CONTEXT
        1. One Step Deployment
        2. Methodology
      5. BACKGROUND AND PRE-USE FEEDBACK
        1. VLE Use
        2. Mobile Use
        3. Impressions of Mobile Learning
      6. REGISTRATION AND DOWNLOAD
        1. Installation and Download
          1. User Feedback on Installation
      7. POST-USE FEEDBACK
        1. User Activity Analysis
          1. Context and Time of Access
          2. Activity Level and Activity Type
        2. Profiled Notifications
        3. Usability
        4. Added Values
          1. Time Management
          2. Communication
          3. Anywhere, Anytime Access
      8. CONCLUSION
        1. Real Use, Real Need
        2. Simplicity and Interoperability
        3. Feature Discovery
      9. REFERENCES
    4. 16. Using Technology to Support Quality Learning for School Activities Involving Field Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CREATING A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MOBILE LEARNING
      4. STAKEHOLDERS' EXPECTATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY
        1. Students
        2. Usability
        3. Scaffolding Technology Use
        4. Teachers
        5. Coordinating Student Activities
        6. Synchronisation of Work
        7. Lesson Planning and Pedagogy
        8. Ongoing Professional Development
        9. Researchers
        10. Data Capturing
        11. User Support
      5. CASE STUDIES
        1. Case One: Student Biodiversity Project
          1. Curriculum Context
          2. Expectations of Mobile Technology
          3. Outcomes and Reflections
        2. Case Two: Salt Pan Creek Biodiversity Study
          1. Curriculum Context
          2. Expectations of Technology
          3. Outcomes and Reflections
      6. ISSUES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
        1. Issues Concerning the Technology
        2. Issues Concerning School and Classroom Culture
        3. Researching in a School Environment
        4. Future Directions
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    5. 17. Exploring Learner Identities through M-Learning: Learning across Regional and Knowledge Boundaries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. M-LEARNING
      4. LEARNING ACROSS DIVERSE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS
      5. LEARNING IDENTITIES
      6. FOUR M-LEARNING VIGNETTES
        1. Vignette 1: The Top End Groove – Indigenous Tourism E-Learning
        2. Vignette 2: Working from Our Strengths – Recognising and building literacy through the Training and Assessment Competencies
        3. Vignette 3: The Safe Houses Training Framework
        4. Vignette 4: Integrating ICT as a Teaching and Learning Tool
      7. M-LEARNING THAT ENGAGES LEARNER IDENTITIES
      8. CONNECTIONS TO M-LEARNING BY FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  10. Compilation of References
  11. About the Contributors