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Approaches to Training and Development

Book Description

Approaches to Training and Development provides a comprehensive and practical introduction to the field of organizational training and human-resource development. It surveys the methods, functions, and goals of training--from needs assessment to implementation--illustrating each step of an effective training program. This new edition includes updates throughout, with fresh examples and current references, with an emphasis on evaluating and explaining new training. Comprehensive, authoritative, and accessible, this new edition will prove an essential resource to a new generation of trainers, HRD professionals, educators, and managers.

Table of Contents

  1. New Perspectives in Organizational Learning, Performance, and Change
  2. Title Page
  3. Publisher’s Note
  4. Table of Figures
  5. 1 - Why This Book?
    1. Reflections on a Revision
    2. Human Resource Development (HRD) and Training and Development (T&D)
    3. Philosophy of This Book
    4. How to Read This Book
  6. 2 - The Need for Training and Development Departments
    1. How Organizations Perform
    2. Preparing Employees to Perform
    3. When Employees Can Do Their Jobs Properly, But Don’t, What Then?
    4. Learning vs. Performance
    5. Training
    6. Education and Development
    7. Summary
  7. 3 - Function and Role of T&D Managers
    1. Competencies Needed
    2. As Managers/Administrators
    3. As Consultants to the Organization
    4. As Designers of Learning Experiences
    5. As Instructors
    6. Summary
  8. 4 - The T&D Department and the Organizational Structure
    1. Trends in Organizational Placement
    2. Line and Staff Considerations
    3. Cooperative Effort
    4. Placement Purely As a Staff Function
    5. Placement As a Line Function
    6. Placement with the Chief Executive Officer
    7. Summary
  9. 5 - Identifying Training Needs
    1. Meeting Customer Needs
    2. Building Professional Integrity
    3. Distinguishing Training Needs from Other Performance Problems
    4. Individual Needs and Organizational Needs
    5. Potential Sources of Individual Training Needs
    6. Potential Sources of Organizational Training Needs
    7. Surveys or Interviews?
    8. Prioritizing Training Needs
    9. Summary
  10. 6 - Responding to Individual Training Needs
    1. The Importance of Individual Training Needs
    2. Inside Answers to Individual Training Needs
    3. Outside Answers to Individual Training Needs
    4. A Control System for Solving Individual Training Needs
    5. Summary
  11. 7 - Training Isn’t Always the Solution
    1. Why Training Isn’t Always Useful
    2. Motivation and Feedback Systems
    3. Contingency Management
    4. Job Enrichment
    5. Organizational Development (OD)
    6. Summary
  12. 8 - Learning Objectives
    1. The Case for Writing Learning Objectives
    2. How to Write Learning Objectives
    3. Who Writes Learning Objectives?
    4. Summary
  13. 9 - How Do People Learn?
    1. Learning Theories
    2. Meta-Theories of Learning
    3. Middle-Range Learning Models at the Individual Level
    4. Experiential Learning
    5. Transformational Learning
    6. Summary
  14. 10 - Instructional Methods
    1. What Are Methods?
    2. A Look at Specific Methods
    3. Summary
  15. 11 - Teaching Technique
    1. The Instructor’s Use of Objectives
    2. Ongoing Measurement
    3. Questioning Techniques
    4. Getting Attention Versus Getting Involvement
    5. Use of Repetition
    6. Relating to Students
    7. Summary
  16. 12 - Training Facilities
    1. The Influence of the T&D Manager
    2. Criteria for Learning Rooms
    3. Room Arrangement
    4. Summary
  17. 13 - Enhancing Transfer of Learning
    1. Training Transfer
    2. Learning Transfer Systems
    3. Diagnosing Learning Transfer System Problems
    4. Intervening to Improve Learning Transfer Systems
    5. Closing the Transfer Gap
    6. Summary
  18. 14 - Training and Development Budgets
    1. General Estimating Policies
    2. T&D Staff Size
    3. Computing the Cost of Performance Deficiencies
    4. Computing the Cost of Training
    5. How Budgeting Helps the “Go/No Go” Decision
    6. Summary
  19. 15 - Measuring Training and Development
    1. What Is Measurement?
    2. Scales of Measurement
    3. Baselines: What They Are and Why They Are Important
    4. Instruments
    5. Post-Training Measurement
    6. Summary
  20. 16 - Assessing the Results of the Training Programs
    1. The Traditional Approach: The Kirkpatrick Model
    2. To What Extent Is Program Evaluation Conducted in Practice?
    3. A New Approach: The Results Assessment System
    4. Results Domains
    5. Learning Results
    6. Perception Results
    7. A Results Assessment Plan
    8. The Core Dimensions
    9. Making Results Assessment Practical and Credible
    10. Overcoming Resistance to Results Assessment
    11. Summary
  21. 17 - Selecting and Retaining the T&D Staff
    1. The Barefoot T&D Specialists
    2. Selecting the T&D Staff
    3. The Care and Development of T&D Specialists
    4. Rotation Policies
    5. Summary
  22. 18 - Does Employee Development Pay Off?
    1. American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) Learning Outcomes Report
    2. Studies in High-Performance Human Resource Practices
    3. Program Results Assessment Case Studies
    4. Summary
  23. 19 - Where Does It All End?
  24. References
  25. Index
  26. Copyright Page