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Approaches for Community Decision Making and Collective Reasoning

Book Description

Technology currently encourages the capture and storage of vast quantities of data and information and so thinkers, reasoners, and decision-makers have available large resources to support their tasks. At the same time, there is a need to engage with an enormous range of complex issues that require reasoning and decisions that are actionable to address them. Approaches for Community Decision Making and Collective Reasoning: Knowledge Technology Support acts to provide knowledge for each individual in a group with the broad structural wealth of reasoning. It also acts as an explicit structure that technological devices for supporting reasoning within a group can hook onto. If you are interested in how groups can structure their activities towards making better decisions or in developing technologies for the support of decision-making in groups, then this book is an excellent way to understand the state of the art and possible ways forward.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. Chapter 1: The Elements of Collective Decision Making
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. A SAMPLE REASONING COMMUNITY
    4. PRECURSORS TO REASONING COMMUNITIES
    5. PHASES OF REASONING WITHIN COMMUNITIES
    6. REASONING COMMUNITIES SURROUNDING A FAILED MARRIAGE
    7. THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY
    8. CROWD SOURCING
    9. THE ROLE OF INTUITION IN DECISION MAKING
    10. SUMMARY
  7. Chapter 2: Collective Reasoning and Coalescing Reasoning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. COLLECTIVE REASONING
    3. COLLECTIVE REASONING AS A FORM OF COOPERATION
    4. THE COOPERATIVE PRODUCT
    5. THE PROCESS OF COLLECTIVE REASONING
    6. TOULMIN ARGUMENT STRUCTURES
    7. RECONSIDERING THE PRODUCT OF COLLECTIVE REASONING FOR SUPPORT
    8. APPROACHES TO COLLECTIVE REASONING
    9. WHAT DO CURRENT TOOLS DO?
    10. REPRESENTING COALESCED REASONING
    11. A PROCESS FOR COALESCING
    12. COALESCING FOR AGREEMENT
    13. SUPPORTING REACHING AGREEMENT
    14. COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE
    15. SUMMARY
  8. Chapter 3: Individual Reasoning within a Reasoning Community
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INDIVIDUAL REASONING AS COALESCING AND ASSERTING
    4. FURTHER REFLECTIONS ON REASONING
    5. PROBLEM STRUCTURING METHODS
    6. SUMMARY
  9. Chapter 4: The Generic/Actual Argument Model
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE GENERIC/ACTUAL ARGUMENT MODEL
    4. AN EXAMPLE FROM REFUGEE LAW
    5. DEFINING THE GAAM
    6. FORMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GAAM
    7. AN EXAMPLE FROM WATER MANAGEMENT
    8. OTHER APPROACHES
    9. SUMMARY
  10. Chapter 5: Communicating Reasoning and Dialectics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ON-LINE AND OFF-LINE COMMUNITIES
    4. DIALECTICAL ASPECTS OF REASONING
    5. COMMUNICATION TO ESTABLISH IBIS, DELPHI AND CONSULT MODELS
    6. THE GENERIC/ACTUAL ARGUMENT MODEL
    7. INFERENCE PROCEDURES
    8. THE DIALECTICAL, NON-DIALECTICAL SPLIT
    9. DIALOGUE FOR DEVELOPING A GAS
    10. INDIVIDUAL REASONING FROM A GAS
    11. EXAMPLE
    12. COMMUNICATING INDIVIDUAL REASONING WITH THE GAAM
    13. COMMUNICATING INDIVIDUAL REASONING IN IBIS APPROACHES
    14. COMMUNICATING INDIVIDUAL REASONING IN DELPHI AND CON-SULT
    15. OTHER DIALECTICAL APPROACHES
    16. SUMMARY
    17. Appendix 1: Formal Description of Single Participant Dialogue with a GAS
    18. Appendix 2: Formal Description of a Multi-Participant Dialogue with a GAS
    19. Appendix 3: GAAM Dialogue as a Complete Dialogue
  11. Chapter 6: Narrative Reasoning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. NARRATIVE
    4. NARRATIVE COHERENCE IN LAW
    5. FROM STORIES TO REASONING
    6. TRANSFORMING REASONING INTO A STORY
    7. GENERALIZING THE STRUCTURE
    8. THE CASE AS AN ACTUAL ARGUMENT
    9. FROM ACTUAL ARGUMENT TO NARRATIVE: ANJU’S STORY
    10. FROM ACTUAL ARGUMENT TO NARRATIVE: THE MEMBER’S STORY
    11. OVERVIEW OF THE NARRATIVE MAPPING
    12. ANALYSIS OF THE STORIES
    13. NARRATIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    14. INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE ENVIRONMENTS FROM REASONING
    15. AUTOMATED CASE STUDY GENERATION
    16. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
    17. SUMMARY
  12. Chapter 7: Ontologies and the Semantic Web
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ONTOLOGIES
    4. THE GENE ONTOLOGY
    5. LEGAL ONTOLOGIES
    6. TERMINOLOGY
    7. THE SEMANTIC WEB
    8. REASONING
    9. THE SEMANTIC WEB AND REASONING COMMUNITIES
    10. SUMMARY
  13. Chapter 8: Pragmatic Approaches to Supporting Reasoning Communities
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. WELL-STRUCTURED PROBLEMS
    4. ILL-STRUCTURED PROBLEMS
    5. TOOLS FOR DEFINING THE REASONING COMMUNITY
    6. TECHNIQUES FOR ASSISTING INDIVIDUAL COALESCING
    7. TEXT MINING
    8. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS
    9. SEMI-STRUCTURED APPROACHES
    10. A WIKI AS A GROUP COALESCING TOOL
    11. WEBLOG AS AN INDIVIDUAL’S COALESCING TOOL
    12. SUMMARY
  14. Chapter 9: Tools and Applications for Reasoning Communities
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
    4. COMPUTER SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
    5. GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
    6. ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION, CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND NEGOTIATION
    7. ELECTRONIC DEMOCRACY
    8. A REASONING COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE ON DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY
    9. TOOLS TO SUPPORT REASONING
    10. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    11. WHAT IS NEEDED IN TOOLS
  15. Chapter 10: Conclusion
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. TYPES OF REASONING COMMUNITIES
    4. SPECIFIC REASONING COMMUNITIES
    5. SPECIFIC REASONING COMMUNITY TASKS
    6. COMPLEX REASONING
    7. LIMITATIONS OF A REASONING COMMUNITY APPROACH
    8. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
  16. Compilation of References
  17. About the Contributors