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Applying Nanotechnology to the Desulfurization Process in Petroleum Engineering

Book Description

As regulations push the fossil fuel industry toward increasing standards of eco-friendliness and environmental sustainability, desulfurization (the removal of SO2 from industrial waste byproducts) presents a new and unique challenge that current technology is not equipped to address. Advances in nanotechnology offer exciting new opportunities poised to revolutionize desulfurization processes. Applying Nanotechnology to the Desulfurization Process in Petroleum Engineering explores recent developments in the field, including the use of nanomaterials for biodesulfurization and hydrodesulfurization. The timely research presented in this volume targets an audience of engineers, researchers, educators as well as students at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. Chapter 1: Sulfur in Petroleum
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. 1. OCCURANCE OF SULFUR IN PETROLEUM
    4. 2. DISTRIBUTION OF SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN DISTILLATE FRACTIONS
    5. 3. DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF SULPHUR COMPOUNDS IN PETROLEUM
    6. 4. DESULPHURIZATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
    7. 5. ALTERNATIVE DESULFURIZATION METHODS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. APPENDIX: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
  8. Chapter 2: Sulfur and Nitrogen Chemical Speciation in Crude Oils and Related Carbonaceous Materials
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SULFUR GEOCHEMISTRY IN SOME CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS
    4. HETEROATOM CHARACTERIZATION IN FOSSIL FUELS
    5. X-RAY ABSORPTION NEAR EDGE SPECTROSCOPY (XANES)
    6. XANES EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
    7. XANES ANALYSIS
    8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    11. REFERENCES
  9. Chapter 3: Cleaner Energy Fuels
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CONVENTIONAL HYDRODESULFURIZTION (HDS)
    4. SCOPE AND SIGNIFICANCE
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Chapter 4: Nanocomposites and Hybrid Materials for Adsorptive Desulfurization
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. TYPES OF ADSORPTIVE DESULFURIZATION
    4. 3. NANOMATERIALS AND HYBRID MATERIALS PREPARATION
    5. 4. APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITES AND HYBRID MATERIALS IN DESULFURIZATION
    6. 5. MECHANISMS OF ADSORPTIVE DESULFURIZATION
    7. 6. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
    8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. REFERENCES
  11. Chapter 5: Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Desulfurization
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF CARBON-BASED MATERIALS
    4. 3. PREPARATION OF CARBON STRUCTURES
    5. 4. EVALUATION
    6. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
  12. Chapter 6: Advances in Nanotechnology Transition Metal Catalysts in Oxidative Desulfurization (ODS) Processes
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. NANOCOMPOSITES
    4. NANOPARTICLES
    5. CARBON NANOTUBES AND NANORODS
    6. DRAWBACKS DURING THE OXIDATION AND EXTRACTION STEPS
    7. BIODESULFURIZATION (BDS)
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
  13. Chapter 7: Ni/ZnO Nano Sorbent for Reactive Adsorption Desulfurization of Refinery Oil Streams
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. REACTIVE ADSORPTION DESULFURIZATION OVER NANO SORBENT
    5. APPLICATION OF RADS TECHNOLOGY
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  14. Chapter 8: Trimetallic Sulfide Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. UNSUPPORTED TRIMETALLIC CATALYSTS FOR HDS
    4. 3. SUPPORTED TRIMETALLIC CATALYSTS
    5. 4. FINAL REMARKS
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
  15. Chapter 9: Polymolybdate Supported Nano Catalyst for Desulfurization of Diesel
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. METHOD
    5. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
  16. Chapter 10: Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanofibers for Adsorptive Desulfurization
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. METHODS OF DESULFURIZATION
    4. ELECTROSPINNING OF POLYMER SOLUTIONS
    5. APPLICATION OF ORGANOSULFONES IMPRINTED NANOFIBERS FOR ADSORPTIVE DESULFURIZATION
    6. NOTES AND PERSPECTIVES
    7. REFERENCES
  17. Chapter 11: Flue Gas Desulfurization
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE PROBLEM OF SO
    4. FGD PROCESSES
    5. MECHANISM OF ABSORPTION AND MAIN FGD CONFIGURATIONS
    6. FGD SYSTEMS
    7. CONTROL VARIABLES AND PARAMETERS
    8. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  18. Chapter 12: Nanotechnology Applied to the Biodesulfurization of Fossil Fuels and Spent Caustic Streams
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. NANOMATERIALS AND DESULFURIZATION
    5. NANOBIODESULFURIZATION
    6. PERSPECTIVES AND CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
  19. Chapter 13: Advances in the Reduction of the Costs Inherent to Fossil Fuels' Biodesulfurization towards Its Potential Industrial Application
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BDS COST REDUCTION
    4. BDS OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
  20. Chapter 14: Polyoxometalates-Based Nanocatalysts for Production of Sulfur-Free Diesel
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. CATALYTIC OXIDATIVE DESULFURIZATION STUDIES
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
  21. Compilation of References
  22. About the Contributors