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Applying Design for Six Sigma to Software and Hardware Systems

Book Description

The Practical, Example-Rich Guide to Building Better Systems, Software, and Hardware with DFSS

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) offers engineers powerful opportunities to develop more successful systems, software, hardware, and processes. In Applying Design for Six Sigma to Software and Hardware Systems, two leading experts offer a realistic, step-by-step process for succeeding with DFSS. Their clear, start-to-finish roadmap is designed for successfully developing complex high-technology products and systems that require both software and hardware development.

Drawing on their unsurpassed experience leading Six Sigma at Motorola, the authors cover the entire project lifecycle, from business case through scheduling, customer-driven requirements gathering through execution. They provide real-world examples for applying their techniques to software alone, hardware alone, and systems composed of both. Product developers will find proven job aids and specific guidance about what teams and team members need to do at every stage.

Using this book’s integrated, systems approach, marketers, software professionals, and hardware developers can converge all their efforts on what really matters: addressing the customer’s true needs.

Learn how to

  • Ensure that your entire team shares a solid understanding of customer needs

  • Define measurable critical parameters that reflect customer requirements

  • Thoroughly assess business case risk and opportunity in the context of product roadmaps and portfolios

  • Prioritize development decisions and scheduling in the face of resource constraints

  • Flow critical parameters down to quantifiable, verifiable requirements for every sub-process, subsystem, and component

  • Use predictive engineering and advanced optimization to build products that robustly handle variations in manufacturing and usage

  • Verify system capabilities and reliability based on pilots or early production samples

  • Master new statistical techniques for ensuring that supply chains deliver on time, with minimal inventory

  • Choose the right DFSS tools, using the authors’ step-by-step flowchart

  • If you’re an engineer involved in developing any new technology solution, this book will help you reflect the real Voice of the Customer, achieve better results faster, and eliminate fingerpointing.

    About the Web Site  The accompanying Web site,, provides an interactive DFSS flowchart, templates, exercises, examples, and tools.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Praise for Applying Design for Six Sigma to Software and Hardware Systems
    3. Foreword
    4. Preface
      1. Purpose and Scope
      2. Who Can Benefit from this Book
      3. Organization and Summary of the Chapters
      4. Supplementary Material Provided through the Web Site
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. About the Authors
    7. 1. Introduction: History and Overview of DFSS
      1. A Brief Historical Perspective on Six Sigma and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)
        1. Six Steps to Six Sigma
      2. Historical Perspective on Design for Six Sigma
        1. DFSS Processes
      3. DFSS Example
      4. Summary
    8. 2. DFSS Deployment
      1. Ideal Scenario for DFSS Deployment
      2. Steps Involved in a Successful DFSS Deployment
        1. Step 1: “The Burning Platform”: Confronting Reality
        2. Step 2: The Guiding Coalition—Early Stakeholder Engagement
        3. Step 3: Defining the Vision
        4. Step 4: Analyzing Potential Concerns, Issues, Roadblocks, and Impediments
        5. Step 5: Planning the Campaign—the DFSS Deployment Plan
        6. Step 6: Communicating the Vision
        7. Step 7: Executing the Campaign
        8. Step 8: Removing Roadblocks and Impediments
        9. Step 9: Generating Short-Term Wins
        10. Step 10: Consolidating Gains, Recognizing People and Teams and
        11. Step 11: Anchoring the New Approach in the Culture
      3. DFSS Deployment: Single Project
      4. Minimum Set of Tools, and the “One Tool Syndrome”
      5. Goals for DFSS
      6. “The DFSS Project was a Success, But . . .”
      7. Summary
    9. 3. Governance, Success Metrics, Risks, and Certification
      1. DFSS Governance
        1. Supportive Project Reviews
        2. Formal Gate Reviews
      2. Success Metrics
      3. Product Development Risks
        1. Risk Management Roles
          1. Project Manager
          2. Development Manager
          3. Risk Owner
      4. DFSS Certification
      5. Summary
    10. 4. Overview of DFSS Phases
      1. DFSS for Projects, Including Software and Hardware
      2. DFSS Process Nomenclatures
      3. Requirements Phase
      4. Architecture Phase
      5. Architecture Phase for the Software Aspects
      6. Design Phase
      7. Integrate Phase
      8. Optimize Phase
      9. Verify Phase
      10. Summary
    11. 5. Portfolio Decision Making and Business Case Risk
      1. Position within DFSS Flow
      2. Portfolio Decision Making as an Optimization Process
      3. Financial Metric
      4. Portfolio Decisions and Resource Constraints
      5. Goals, Constraints, Considerations, and Distractions
      6. Adjusting Portfolio Decisions Based on Existing Commitments and the Organization’s Strategic Direction
      7. Summary: Addressing Business Case Risk
    12. 6. Project Schedule Risk
      1. Position within DFSS Flow
      2. Project Schedule Model
      3. The “Fuzzy Front End” and Delays Caused by Changing Requirements
      4. Time for First Pass: Critical Path versus Critical Chain
      5. Critical Chain/Theory of Constraints Project Management Behaviors
      6. Iterations, Qualification, and Release to Production
      7. Summary: Addressing Schedule Risk
    13. 7. Gathering Voice of the Customer to Prioritize Technical Requirements
      1. Importance and Position within DFSS Flow
      2. VOC Purpose and Objectives
      3. The VOC Gathering (Interviewing) Team
      4. Customer Selection
      5. Voices and Images
      6. Customer Interview Guide
      7. Planning Customer Visits and Interviews
      8. Customer Interviews
      9. KJ Analysis: Grouping, Structuring, and Filtering the VOC
      10. Identifying Challenging Customer Requirements (NUDs)
      11. Kano Analysis
      12. Validation and Prioritization of Customer Requirements
      13. Translating Customer Requirements to System Requirements: The System-Level House of Quality
      14. Constructing a House of Quality
      15. Summary: VOC Gathering—Tying It All Together
    14. 8. Concept Generation and Selection
      1. Position within DFSS Flow
      2. Concept Generation Approaches
      3. Brainstorming and Mind-Mapping
      4. TRIZ
      5. Alternative Architecture Generation: Hardware and Software
      6. Generation of Robust Design Concepts
      7. Consideration of Existing Solutions
      8. Feasibility Screening
      9. Developing Feasible Concepts to Consistent Levels
      10. Concept Selection
      11. Summary
      12. Appendix: Kansei Engineering
    15. 9. Identification of Critical Parameters and FMEA
      1. Position within DFSS Flow
      2. Definition of a Critical Parameter
      3. Considerations from VOB and Constraints
      4. Prioritization and Selection of Critical Parameters
      5. FMEA
      6. Software FMEA Process (Software Systems, Software Subsystems, and Software Components FMEA)
      7. Software FMEA Implementation Case Study
      8. Considerations of Reliability and Availability
      9. Examples of Critical Parameters
      10. Summary
      11. Appendix: Software FMEA Process Documentation
    16. 10. Requirements Flow-Down
      1. Position within DFSS Flow
      2. Flow-Down for Hardware and Software Systems
      3. Anticipation of Potential Problems: P-Diagrams and DFMEA
      4. Target and Spec Limits
      5. Measurement System Analysis
      6. Capability Analysis
      7. Flow-Down or Decomposition
        1. Procedure for Critical Parameter Flow-Down or Decomposition
      8. Flow-Down Examples
      9. Initial Tolerance Allocation
      10. Summary
    17. 11. Software DFSS and Agile
      1. Measuring the Agile Design
        1. Data Collection Plan for ViewHome prototype
      2. Summary
    18. 12. Software Architecture Decisions
      1. Software Architecture Decision-Making Process
      2. Using Design Heuristics to Make Decisions
        1. Common Design Heuristics and Principles
      3. Using Architecture Tactics to Make Decisions
      4. Using DFSS Design Trade-Off Analysis to Make Decisions
      5. Using Design Patterns, Simulation, Modeling, and Prototyping for Decisions
      6. Summary
    19. 13. Predictive Engineering: Continuous and Discrete Transfer Functions
      1. Discrete versus Continuous Critical Parameters
      2. Methods for Deriving a Transfer Function for a Discrete Critical Parameter
      3. Logistic Regression for Discrete Parameters
      4. Methods for Deriving a Transfer Function for a Continuous or Ordinal Critical Parameter
      5. Existing or Derived Equation (First Principles Modeling)
      6. Modeling within a Spreadsheet, Mathematical Modeling Software, or Simulation Software
      7. Empirical Modeling using Historical Data: Regression Analysis and General Linear Model
      8. Empirical Modeling using Design of Experiments
      9. Empirical Modeling using Response Surface Methods
      10. DOE with Simulators: Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments (DACE)
      11. Summary
    20. 14. Predictive Engineering: Optimization and Critical Parameter Flow-Up
      1. Critical Parameter Flow-Up: Monte Carlo Simulation
      2. Critical Parameter Flow-Up: Generation of System Moments (Root Sum of Squares)
      3. Critical Parameter Scorecard
      4. Selecting Critical Parameters for Optimization
      5. Optimization: Mean and/or Variance
      6. Optimization: Robustness through Variance Reduction
      7. Multiple Response Optimization
      8. Cooptimization of Cpk’s
      9. Yield Surface Modeling
      10. Case Study: Integrated Alternator Regulator (IAR) IC for Automotive
      11. Summary
    21. 15. Predictive Engineering: Software Optimization
      1. Multiple Response Optimization in Software
      2. Use Case Modeling in Optimization
      3. Evaluate the Model
      4. Software Mistake Proofing
      5. Software Stability
      6. Summary
    22. 16. Verification of Design Capability: Hardware
      1. Position within DFSS Flow
      2. Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
      3. Improvements for Inadequate Measurement Systems
      4. The Risk of Failures Despite Verification: Test Escapes
      5. Determine the Capability
      6. Summary
    23. 17. Verification of Reliability and Availability
      1. Customer Perspective
      2. Availability and Reliability Flow-Down
      3. Bathtub Curve and Weibull Model
      4. Software Reliability
      5. Early Life Failures/Infant Mortality
      6. Useful Life/Constant Failure Rate
      7. Wear Out
      8. Detailed Flowchart for Reliability Optimization and Verification
      9. Accelerated Life Testing
      10. WeiBayes: Zero Failures Obtained from ALT
      11. Risk of Failures Despite Verification: Reliability Test Escapes
      12. Methods to Improve Reliability and Availability
      13. Summary
      14. Appendix: Case Studies—Software Reliability, and System Availability (Hardware and Software Availability)
        1. Software Reliability: A Case Study in a Zero Defect Initiative
        2. Case Study: Modeling Availability for a Cellular Base Station
    24. 18. Verification: Software Testing Combined with DFSS Techniques
      1. Software Verification Test Strategy Using Six Sigma
      2. Controlling Software Test Case Development through Design Patterns
      3. Improving Software Verification Testing Using Combinatorial Design Methods
      4. Summary
      5. Bibliography
      6. Glossary of Common Software Testing Terms
    25. 19. Verification of Supply Chain Readiness
      1. Position within DFSS Flow
      2. Verification that Tolerance Expectations Will Be Met
      3. Confidence in Robust Product Assembly (DFMA)
      4. Verification of Appropriate and Acceptable Interface Flows
      5. Confidence in the Product Launch Schedule
      6. Confidence in Meeting On-Time Delivery and Lead-Time Commitments
      7. Case Study: Optoelectronic Multichip Module
      8. Summary
    26. 20. Summary and Future Directions
      1. Future Directions