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Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping

Book Description

Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping, With Structural Methods, 2nd Edition is the practical, up-to-the-minute guide to the use of subsurface interpretation, mapping, and structural techniques in the search for oil and gas resources. Two of the industry's leading consultants present systematic coverage of the field's key principles and newest advances, offering guidance that is valuable for both exploration and development activities, as well as for "detailed" projects in maturely developed areas.

Fully updated and expanded, this edition combines extensive information from the published literature with significant material never before published. The authors introduce superior techniques for every major petroleum-related tectonic setting in the world.

Coverage includes:

  • A systematic, ten-step philosophy for subsurface interpretation and mapping

  • The latest computer-based contouring concepts and applications

  • Advanced manual and computer-based log correlation

  • Integration of geophysical data into subsurface interpretations and mapping

  • Cross-section construction: structural, stratigraphic, and problem-solving

  • Interpretation and generation of valid fault, structure, and isochore maps

  • New coverage of 3D seismic interpretation, from project setup through documentation

  • Compressional and extensional structures: balancing and interpretation

  • In-depth new coverage of strike-slip faulting and related structures

  • Growth and correlation consistency techniques: expansion indices, Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis, vertical separation versus depth, and more

  • Numerous field examples from around the world

  • Whatever your role in the adventure of finding and developing oil or gas resources–as a geologist, geophysicist, engineer, technologist, manager or investor–the tools presented in this book can make you significantly more effective in your daily technical or decision-oriented activities.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Foreword
      1. Foreword to the First Edition
      2. Foreword to the Second Edition
    3. Preface
    4. Acknowledgments
      1. Reviewers—First and Second Editions
      2. Contributors—First and Second Editions
      3. Drafting—First Edition
      4. Drafting—Second Edition
      5. Support Personnel—First Edition
      6. Support Personnel—Second Edition
      7. Contributing Authors—Second Edition
        1. Special Recognition and Thanks from Daniel J. Tearpock—First Edition
        2. Second Edition
        3. Special Recognition and Thanks from Richard E. Bischke—First Edition
        4. Second Edition
    5. Daniel J. Tearpock (Subsurface Consultants & Associates, LLC.)
    6. Richard E. Bischke (Subsurface Consultants & Associates, LLC.)
    7. 1. Introduction to Subsurface Mapping
      1. Textbook Overview
      2. The Philosophical Doctrine of Accurate Subsurface Interpretation and Mapping
      3. Types of Subsurface Maps and Cross Sections
    8. 2. Contouring and Contouring Techniques
      1. Introduction
      2. Three-Dimensional Perspective
      3. Rules of Contouring
      4. Methods of Contouring by Hand
      5. Computer-Based Contouring Concepts and Applications
        1. Surface Modeling
          1. Indirect Technique (Gridding)
          2. Direct Technique (Triangulation)
        2. Steps Involved In Gridding
          1. Selecting Neighbors and Estimating Values at Grid Nodes
          2. Estimating Values at Grid Nodes
          3. Steps Involved In Triangulation
          4. Sample Data Set
        3. Conformable Geology and Multi-Surface Stacking
        4. Contouring Faulted Surfaces on the Computer
          1. Procedure for Contouring Faulted Surfaces
          2. Limitations
    9. 3. Directionally Drilled Wells and Directional Surveys
      1. Introduction
      2. Application of Directionally Drilled Wells
      3. Common Types of Directionally Drilled Wells
        1. General Terminology
        2. Horizontal Wells
      4. Directional Well Plan
      5. Directional Tools Used for Measurements
        1. Magnetic Surveys
        2. Nonmagnetic Surveys
      6. Directional Survey Calculations
      7. Directional Survey Uncertainties
      8. Directional Well Plots
    10. 4. Log Correlation Techniques
      1. Introduction
        1. General Log Measurement Terminology
      2. Electric Log Correlation Procedures and Guidelines
      3. Correlation Type Log
      4. Electric Log Correlation – Vertical Wells
        1. Log Correlation Plan
        2. Basic Concepts in Electric Log Correlation
        3. Faults Versus Variations in Stratigraphy
          1. Fault Determinations: Depth and Missing Section
          2. Stratigraphic Variations
        4. Pitfalls in Vertical Well Log Correlation
          1. Logs cannot be correlated in a vacuum
      5. Electric Log Correlation – Directionally Drilled Wells
        1. Log Correlation Plan
        2. Correlation of Vertical and Directionally Drilled Wells
        3. Estimating the Missing Section for Normal Faults
          1. Horizontal Beds
          2. Dipping Beds
          3. Method 1 – Two-Dimensional Correction Factor
          4. Method 2 – Three-Dimensional Correction Factor
          5. Application of Methods 1 and 2
        4. MLT, TVDT, TVT, and TST
      6. Electric Log Correlation – Horizontal Wells
        1. Direct Detection of Bed Boundaries
        2. Modeling Log Response of Bed Boundaries and Fluid Contacts
        3. True Vertical Depth Cross Section
        4. True Stratigraphic Depth Method
      7. Computer-Based Log Correlation
        1. Well Log Correlation: The Transition from Paper-Based to Screen-Based
        2. On-Screen Log Correlation
        3. Example of Unconformity Identification
        4. Example of Fault Identification
      8. Repeated Section
      9. Estimating Restored Tops
        1. Vertical Wells
        2. Deviated Wells
      10. Unconformities
      11. Annotation and Documentation
    11. 5. Integration of Geophysical Data in Subsurface Mapping
      1. Introduction and Philosophy
        1. Seismic Data Applied to Subsurface Interpretations
        2. Assumptions and Limitations
      2. The Process
      3. Data Validation and Interpretation
        1. Examining the Seismic Sections
        2. Concepts in Tying Seismic Data
          1. Rationale for Tying Loops
          2. Loop-Tying as a Proof of Correctness
        3. Procedures in Tying Seismic Data
          1. Contemplating the Data
          2. Picking a Reflection to Interpret and Map
          3. Annotating the Well Information
          4. Tying Well Data to Seismic with Checkshot Information
          5. Tying Well Data to Seismic with Synthetic Seismograms
          6. Tying the Faults
          7. Tying the Lines and Horizons
        4. Mis-ties
          1. Static Mis-ties
          2. Migration Mis-ties
      4. Data Extraction
        1. Picking and Posting
          1. Types of Data from Seismic
          2. Extracting the Data
          3. Posting the Information
        2. Converting Time to Depth
          1. Brute Conversion with a Time–Depth Table
          2. Recognizing Velocity Problems
          3. Accounting for Small Velocity Problems
      5. Some Final Thoughts on Seismic Mapping
    12. 6. Cross Sections
      1. Introduction
      2. Planning a Cross Section
      3. Structural Cross Sections
        1. Electric Log Sections
        2. Stick Sections
      4. Stratigraphic Cross Sections
      5. Problem-Solving Cross Sections
      6. Finished Illustration (Show) Cross Sections
      7. Correlation Sections
      8. Cross Section Design
        1. Extensional Structures
        2. Diapiric Salt Structures
        3. Compressional Structures
        4. Strike-Slip Faulted Structures
      9. Vertical Exaggeration
      10. Projection of Wells
        1. Plunge Projection
        2. Strike Projection
        3. Other Types of Projections
        4. Projection of Deviated Wells
        5. Projecting a Well into a Seismic Line
      11. Cross Section Construction Across Faults
      12. Three-Dimensional Views
        1. Log Maps
        2. Fence Diagrams
          1. Fence Diagram Construction
        3. Isometric Projections
        4. Three-Dimensional Reservoir Analysis Model
          1. Construction Procedure
      13. Cross Section Construction Using a Computer
        1. Correlation Cross Sections
        2. Stratigraphic Cross Sections
          1. Missing Section in Stratigraphic Cross Sections
        3. Structural Cross Sections
      14. Fault Seal Analysis
        1. Fault Surface Sections Constructed by Hand
        2. Computer-Based Fault Seal Analysis
          1. Application of 3D Modeling and Visualization Techniques
          2. Fault-Seal Potential
        3. Conclusions
    13. 7. Fault Maps
      1. Introduction
      2. Fault Terminology
      3. Definition of Fault Displacement
      4. Mathematical Relationship of Throw to Vertical Separation
        1. Quantitative Relationship
      5. Fault Data Determined From Well Logs
      6. Fault Surface Map Construction
        1. Contouring Guidelines
        2. Fault Surface Map Construction Techniques
      7. Types of Fault Patterns
        1. Extensional Faulting
          1. Bifurcating Fault Pattern
          2. Compensating Fault Pattern
        2. Intersecting Fault Pattern
          1. Combined Vertical Separation
        3. Compressional Faulting
          1. Single Compressional Faults
          2. Intersecting Compressional Faults
          3. Ramp and Flat Thrust Faults
      8. Fault Data Determined From Seismic Information
        1. Seismic and Well Log Data Integration – Fault Surface Map Construction
          1. Fault-Displacement Mapping
        2. Seismic Pitfalls
      9. Growth Faults
        1. Estimating the Vertical Separation for a Growth Fault
          1. The Restored Top Method
          2. The Single Well Method
        2. Growth-Fault Surface Map Construction
      10. Directional Surveys and Fault Surface Maps
        1. Directional Well Pitfalls
        2. Fault Maps, Directional Wells, and Repeated Sections
      11. Vertical Separation – Correction Factor and Documentation
    14. 8. Structure Maps
      1. Introduction
      2. Guidelines to Contouring
      3. Summary of the Methods of Contouring by Hand
      4. Contouring Faulted Surfaces
        1. Techniques for Contouring Across Normal Faults
          1. Mapping Throw Across a Fault
          2. Error Analysis – Procedure for Checking Structure Maps
          3. The Legitimate Contouring of Throw
        2. Technique for Contouring Across Reverse Faults
      5. Manual Integration of Fault and Structure Maps
        1. Normal Faults
          1. Restored Tops – An Aid to Structural Integration
        2. Reverse Faults
      6. Fault Traces and Gaps – Shortcuts and Pitfalls
        1. Rule of 45
        2. Tangent or Circle Method
        3. New Circle Method
        4. Equation to Determine Radius of Circle
        5. Equation to Determine Heave
        6. Fault Gap Versus Fault Heave
      7. Structure Map – Generic Case Study
      8. The Additive Property of Faults
      9. Integration of Seismic and Well Data for Structure Mapping
      10. Other Mapping Techniques
        1. Mapping Unconformities
          1. Mapping Techniques
        2. Mapping Across Vertical Faults
        3. Top of Structure Versus Top of Porosity
        4. Contour Compatibility – Closely Spaced Horizons
      11. Application of Contour Compatibility Across Faults
        1. Exceptions to Contour Compatibility Across Faults
      12. Mapping Techniques for Various Tectonic Habitats
        1. Extensional Tectonics
          1. Compensating Fault Pattern
          2. Bifurcating Fault Pattern
          3. Intersecting Fault Pattern
          4. Combined Vertical Separation
          5. Growth Faults
        2. Diapiric Salt Tectonics
          1. Hydrocarbon Traps
          2. Contouring the Salt Surface
          3. Salt–Fault Intersection
          4. Salt–Sediment Intersection
          5. Completed Structural Picture
        3. Strike-Slip Fault Tectonics
        4. Compressional Tectonics
          1. Reverse Faults
          2. Thrust Faults
      13. Requirements for a Reasonable Structural Interpretation and Completed Maps
        1. Multiple Horizon Mapping
          1. Discontinuity of Structure with Depth
    15. 9. Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data
      1. Introduction and Philosophy
        1. The Philosophical Doctrine Relative to the Workstation
        2. Optimizing the Data
        3. Project Setup
        4. Optimizing Displays for Better Results
        5. Framework Interpretation and Mapping
      2. Planning, Organizing and Documenting a Project
        1. Teamwork
        2. Developing a Project Plan
        3. Developing an Interpretation Workflow
        4. Organizing a Workstation Project
        5. Documenting Work
      3. Fault Interpretation
        1. Introduction
        2. Reconnaissance
        3. Integrating Well Control
        4. Fault Interpretation Strategies
        5. Quality-Checking Fault Surfaces in Map and Seismic Views
      4. Horizon Interpretation
        1. Selecting the Framework Horizons
        2. Tying Well Data
        3. Interpretation Strategy
        4. Infill Strategies
      5. Preliminary Structure Mapping
        1. Drawing Accurate Fault Gaps and Overlaps
        2. Gridding and Contouring
      6. Horizon and Fault Integration on a Workstation
      7. Conclusion
    16. 10. Compressional Structures: Balancing and Interpretation
      1. Introduction
      2. Structural Geology and Balancing
      3. Mechanical Stratigraphy
      4. Classical Balancing Techniques
        1. Volume Accountability Rule
        2. Area Accountability
        3. Bed Length Consistency
        4. Pin Lines
        5. Line Length Exercise
        6. Computer-Aided Structural Modeling and Balancing
        7. Retrodeformation
        8. Picking Thrust Faults
      5. Cross Section Consistency
      6. Cross Section Construction
        1. Busk Method Approximation
        2. Kink Method Approximation
        3. Kink Method Applications
      7. Depth to Detachment Calculations
      8. Nonclassical Methods
        1. Introduction
        2. Suppe’s Assumptions and Dahlstrom’s Rules
        3. Fault Bend Folds
        4. Fault Propagation Folds
        5. Imbricate Structures
          1. Dip Spectral Analysis
        6. Box and Lift-Off Structures
        7. Triangle Zones and Wedge Structures
        8. Interference Structures
    17. 11. Extensional Structures: Balancing and Interpretation
      1. Introduction
      2. Origin of Hanging Wall (Rollover) Anticlines
        1. Coulomb Collapse Theory
        2. Growth Sedimentation
          1. Example of a Rollover Structure
      3. A Graphical Dip Domain Technique for Projecting Large Growth Faults to Depth
        1. Rollover Geometry Features
        2. Projecting Large Normal Faults to Depth
        3. Procedures for Projecting Large Normal Faults to Depth
          1. Field Example
          2. Determining the Coulomb Collapse Angles from Rollover Structures
      4. Origin of Synthetic and Antithetic Faults, Keystone Structures, and Downward Dying Growth Faults
        1. Backsliding Process
          1. Backsliding Model
          2. Example from Corsair Trend
      5. Three-Dimensional Effects and Cross Structures
      6. Strike-Ramp Pitfall
      7. Compaction Effects Along Growth Normal Faults
        1. Prospect Example
        2. Inverting Fault Dips to Determine Sand/Shale Ratios or Percent Sand
          1. Example from Segno Field, Polk County, Texas
    18. 12. Strike-Slip Faults and Associated Structures
      1. Introduction
      2. Mapping Strike-Slip Faults
        1. The Problem of Strike-Slip Fault Interpretation
        2. Strain Ellipse Model
        3. Problems Interpreting Stress
        4. Stress Measurements Across Strike-Slip Faults
      3. Criteria for Strike-Slip Faulting
      4. Analysis of Lateral Displacements
        1. Surface Features
        2. Piercing Point or Piercing Line Evidence
          1. Regional Restoration
          2. Local Restoration
          3. Releasing Bends
          4. Restraining Bends
      5. Scaling Factors for Strike-Slip Displacements
      6. Balancing Strike-Slip Faults
        1. Compressional Folding Along Strike-Slip Faults
          1. Generic Example of Strike-Slip Compressional Folding
        2. Extensional Folding Along Strike-Slip Faults
          1. Ridge Basin Geology
          2. Geometry of Strike-Slip Extensional Folding
          3. Geometry of the Hungry Valley Fault
      7. Summary
      8. Conclusions
    19. 13. Growth Structures
      1. Introduction
        1. Expansion Index for Growth Faults
      2. Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis and Δd/d Methods
        1. Method
          1. Common Extensional Growth Patterns
        2. Unconformity Patterns
      3. Accuracy of Method
      4. Examples of the Δd/d Method
        1. Generic Example of a Delta
        2. Applying the Δd/d Method to Seismic Data
        3. Resolving a Log Correlation Problem
        4. An Example of Stratigraphic Interpretation
        5. Locating Sequence Boundaries in a Compressional Growth Structure
        6. Analysis of the Timing of a Strike-Slip Growth Structure
      5. The Multiple Bischke Plot Analysis
        1. MBPA to Recognize Correlation Problems
        2. The Use of a Stacked Multiple Bischke Plot
      6. Vertical Separation Versus Depth Method
        1. Method
        2. Generic and Real Examples of Analysis of VS/d Plots
          1. Post-Depositional (Nongrowth) Faults
          2. Growth Normal Faults
          3. Growth Reverse Fault
          4. Complex Growth Structures
          5. Downward-Dying Growth Faults
      7. Conclusions
    20. 14. Isochore and Isopach Maps
      1. Introduction
      2. Sand–Shale Distribution
      3. Basic Construction of Isochore Maps
        1. Bottom Water Reservoir
          1. Net Pay Isochore Map Construction
        2. Edge Water Reservoir
          1. Net Pay Isochore Map Construction for a Single-Phase Reservoir
          2. Net Pay Isochore Map Construction for a Reservoir Containing Oil and Gas
      4. Methods of Contouring the Hydrocarbon Wedge
        1. Limited Well Control and Evenly Distributed Impermeable Rock
        2. Walking Wells – Unevenly Distributed Impermeable Rock
          1. Procedure for Walking a Well
          2. Reservoirs with Significant Shale Intervals
      5. Vertical Thickness Determinations
        1. The Impact of Correction Factors
      6. Vertical Thickness and Fluid Contacts in Deviated Wells
      7. Mapping the Top of Structure Versus the Top of Porosity
      8. Fault Wedges
        1. Conventional Method for Mapping a Fault Wedge
        2. Mid-Trace Method
      9. Nonsealing Faults
      10. Volumetric Configuration of a Reservoir
      11. Reservoir Volume Determinations From Isochore Maps
        1. Horizontal Slice Method
        2. Vertical Slice Method
        3. Choice of Method
      12. Introductory Reservoir Engineering
        1. Reservoir Characterization
        2. Estimation of Reserves
          1. Gas Reservoirs
          2. Oil Reservoirs
        3. Field Production History
      13. Interval Isopach Maps
        1. True Stratigraphic Thickness from Well Logs
        2. Interval Isopach Construction Using Seismic Data
    21. Appendix
    22. References