You are previewing Applied Physics.
O'Reilly logo
Applied Physics

Book Description

Applied Physics is designed to cater to the needs of first year undergraduate engineering students of Jawaharlal Nehru Technical University (J.N.T.U). Written in a lucid style, this book assimilates the best practices of conceptual pedagogy, dealin

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1 - Bonding in Solids
    1. 1.1 - Different Types of Bonding in Solids
    2. 1.2 - Cohesive Energy and Estimation of Cohesive Energy of Ionic Solids
    3. 1.3 - Estimation of Cohesive Energy of NaCl Molecule in a Solid
    4. 1.4 - Madelung Constant
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  7. Chapter 2 - Crystal Structures
    1. 2.1 - Introduction
    2. 2.2 - Space Lattice (or) Crystal Lattice
    3. 2.3 - The Basis and Crystal Structure
    4. 2.4 - Unit Cell and Lattice Parameters
    5. 2.5 - Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattices
    6. 2.6 - Structure and Packing Fractions of Simple Cubic [SC] Structure
    7. 2.7 - Structure and Packing Fractions of Body-Centred Cubic Structure [BCC]
    8. 2.8 - Structure and Packing Fractions of Face-Centred Cubic [FCC] Structure
    9. 2.9 - Diamond Cubic Structure
    10. 2.10 - NaCl Crystal Structure
    11. 2.11 - Caesium Chloride [CsCl] Structure
    12. 2.12 - Zinc Sulphide [ZnS] Structure
    13. 2.13 - Stacking Sequence in Metallic Crystals
    14. 2.14 - Calculation of Lattice Constant
      1. Solved Problems
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Answers
      4. Review Questions
  8. Chapter 3 - Crystal Planes, X-ray Diffraction and Defects in Solids
    1. 3.1 - Crystal Planes, Directions and Miller Indices
    2. 3.2 - Distance of Separation Between Successive hkl Planes
    3. 3.3 - Imperfections in Crystals
    4. 3.4 - Energy for the Formation of a Vacancy and Number of Vacancies at Euqilibrium Concentration
    5. 3.5 - Diffraction of X-rays by Crystal Planes and Bragg's Law
    6. 3.6 - Powder Method
    7. 3.7 - Laue Method
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  9. Chapter 4 - Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Principles of Quantum Mechanics
    1. 4.1 - Introduction
    2. 4.2 - Phase Space
    3. 4.3 - Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution
    4. 4.4 - Fermi–Dirac Distribution
    5. 4.5 - Bose–Einstein Distribution
    6. 4.6 - Comparison of Maxwell–Boltzmann, Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein Distributions
    7. 4.7 - Photon Gas
    8. 4.8 - Concept of Electron Gas and Fermi Energy
    9. 4.9 - Density of Electron States
    10. 4.10 - Black Body Radiation
    11. 4.11 - Waves and Particles—de Broglie Hypothesis—Matter Waves
    12. 4.12 - Relativistic Correction
    13. 4.13 - Planck's Quantum Theory of Black Body Radiation
    14. 4.14 - Experimental Study of Matter Waves
    15. 4.14 - Schrödinger's Time-Independent Wave Equation
    16. 4.15 - Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    17. 4.16 - Physical Significance of the Wave Function
    18. 4.17 - Particle in a Potential Box
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  10. Chapter 5 - Electron Theory of Metals
    1. 5.1 - Introduction
    2. 5.2 - Classical Free Electron Theory of Metals
    3. 5.3 - Relaxation Time, Mean Free Path, Mean Collision Time and Drift Velocity
    4. 5.4 - Fermi-Dirac Distribution
    5. 5.5 - Quantum Free Electron Theory of Electrical Conduction
    6. 5.6 - Sources of Electrical Resistance
    7. 5.7 - Band Theory of Solids
    8. 5.8 - Bloch Theorem
    9. 5.9 - Origin of Energy Bands Formation in Solids
    10. 5.10 - Velocity and Effective Mass of an Electron
    11. 5.11 - Distinction Between Metals, Semiconductors and Insulators
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  11. Chapter 6 - Dielectric Properties
    1. 6.1 - Introduction
    2. 6.2 - Dielectric Constant
    3. 6.3 - Internal or Local Field
    4. 6.4 - Clausius–Mosotti Relation
    5. 6.5 - Orientational, Ionic and Electronic Polarizations
    6. 6.6 - Frequency Dependence of Polarizability: [Dielectrics in Alternating Fields]
    7. 6.7 - Piezoelectricity
    8. 6.8 - Ferroelectricity
    9. 6.9 - Frequency Dependence of Dielectric Constant
    10. 6.10 - Important Requirements of Insulators
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  12. Chapter 7 - Magnetic Properties
    1. 7.1 - Magnetic Permeability
    2. 7.2 - Magnetization (M)
    3. 7.3 - Origin of Magnetic Moment – Bohr Magneton – Electron spin
    4. 7.4 - Classification of Magnetic Materials
    5. 7.5 - Classical Theory of Diamagnetism (Langevin Theory)
    6. 7.6 - Theory of Paramagnetism
    7. 7.7 - Domain Theory of Ferromagnetism
    8. 7.8 - Hysteresis Curve
    9. 7.9 - Anti-Ferromagnetic Substances
    10. 7.10 - Ferrimagnetic Substances [Ferrites]
    11. 7.11 - Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials
    12. 7.12 - Applications of Ferrites
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  13. Chapter 8 - Semiconductors and Physics of Semiconductor Devices
    1. 8.1 - Introduction
    2. 8.2 - Intrinsic Semiconductors – Carrier Concentration
    3. 8.3 - Electrical Conductivity of a Semiconductor
    4. 8.4 - Extrinsic Semiconductors
    5. 8.5 - Carrier Concentration in Extrinsic Semiconductors
    6. 8.6 - Minority Carrier Life Time
    7. 8.7 - Drift and Diffusion Currents
    8. 8.8 - Einstein's Relations
    9. 8.9 - Continuity Equation
    10. 8.10 - Hall Effect
    11. 8.11 - Direct and Indirect Band Gap Semiconductors
    12. 8.12 - Formation of p-n Junction
    13. 8.13 - Energy Band Diagram of p-n Diode
    14. 8.14 - Diode Equation
    15. 8.15 - p-n Junction Biasing
    16. 8.16 - V–I Characteristics of p-n Diode
    17. 8.17 - p-n Diode Rectifier
    18. 8.18 - Light Emitting Diode [LED]
    19. 8.19 - Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
    20. 8.20 - Photodiodes
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  14. Chapter 9 - Superconductivity
    1. 9.1 - Introduction
    2. 9.2 - General Features of Superconductors
    3. 9.3 - Type-I and Type-II Superconductors
    4. 9.4 - Penetration Depth
    5. 9.5 - Flux Quantization
    6. 9.6 - Quantum Tunneling
    7. 9.7 - Josephson's Effect
    8. 9.8 - BCS Theory
    9. 9.9 - Applications of Superconductivity
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  15. Chapter 10 - Lasers
    1. 10.1 - Introduction
    2. 10.2 - Characteristics of Laser Radiation
    3. 10.3 - Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission
    4. 10.4 - Einstein's Coefficients
    5. 10.5 - Population Inversion
    6. 10.6 - Helium–Neon Gas [He–Ne] Laser
    7. 10.7 - Ruby Laser
    8. 10.8 - Semiconductor Lasers
    9. 10.9 - Carbon Dioxide Laser
    10. 10.10 - Applications of Lasers
      1. Formula
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  16. Chapter 11 - Fibre Optics
    1. 11.1 - Introduction
    2. 11.2 - Principle of Optical Fibre, Acceptance Angle and Acceptance Cone
    3. 11.3 - Numerical Aperture (NA)
    4. 11.4 - Step Index Fibres and Graded Index Fibres–transmission of signals in them
    5. 11.5 - Difference Between Step Index Fibres and Graded Index Fibres
    6. 11.6 - Differences Between Single Mode Fibres and Multimode Fibres
    7. 11.7 - Attenuation in Optical Fibres
    8. 11.8 - Optical Fibres in Communication
    9. 11.9 - Advantages of Optical Fibres in Communication
    10. 11.10 - Fibre Optic Sensing Applications
    11. 11.11 - Applications of Optical Fibres in Medical Field
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problems
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  17. Chapter 12 - Holography
    1. 12.1 - Introduction
    2. 12.2 - Basic Principle of Holography
    3. 12.3 - Recording of Image on a Holographic Plate
    4. 12.4 - Reconstruction of Image from a Hologram
    5. 12.5 - Applications of Holography
      1. Multiple Choice Questions
      2. Answers
      3. Review Questions
  18. Chapter 13 - Acoustics of Buildings and Acoustic Quieting
    1. 13.1 - Introduction to Acoustics of Buildings
    2. 13.2 - Reverberation and Time of Reverberation
    3. 13.3 - Sabine's Empirical Formula for Reverberation Time
    4. 13.4 - Sabine's Reverberation Theory for Reverberation Time
    5. 13.5 - Absorption Coefficient of Sound and its Measurement
    6. 13.6 - Basic Requirements of an Acoustically Good Hall
    7. 13.7 - Factors Affecting Architectural Acoustics and their Remedies
    8. 13.8 - Acoustic Quieting
    9. 13.9 - Methods of Quieting
    10. 13.10 - Quieting for Specific Observers
    11. 13.11 - Muffler (or Silencer)
    12. 13.12 - Sound Proofing
      1. Formulae
      2. Solved Problem
      3. Multiple Choice Questions
      4. Answers
      5. Review Questions
  19. Chapter 14 - Nanotechnology
    1. 14.1 - Basic Principle of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
    2. 14.2 - Physical Properties
    3. 14.3 - Chemical Properties
    4. 14.4 - Fabrication
    5. 14.5 - Production of Nanoparticle
    6. 14.6 - Carbon Nanotubes
    7. 14.7 - Application of Nanotechnology
      1. Multiple Choice Questions
      2. Answers
      3. Review Questions
  20. Appendix A - Hexagonal Close Pack (HCP) Structure
  21. Appendix B - Surface Defects
  22. Dictionary of Selected Terms
  23. Question Papers
  24. Acknowledgements
  25. Copyright