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Applied Natural Language Processing

Book Description

The amount of information that humans have gathered and made available to other humans is phenomenal, yet however large this repository of knowledge is, by this time tomorrow, it will be larger still.Applied Natural Language Processing: Identification, Investigation and Resolution is a volume dedicated to the successful application of processing tools to this information. The majority of this knowledge is expressed through textual media, which requires these tools to utilize the research in the field of Applied Natural Language Processing. This book contains state-of-the-art Applied Natural Language Processing techniques as well as their applications. The descriptions and studies are the product of established researchers in fields relating to ANLP, and this work is relevant to teachers, students, and materials developers in fields spanning computer science, linguistics, and cognitive science.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
    1. Applied Natural Language Processing
    2. NLP and ANLP
    3. A Brief History of ANLP
    4. Organization of the Book
    5. The Future of ANLP
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. Section 1: Foundations: The Role of NLP
    1. Chapter 1: Question Answering and Generation
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. QUESTION QUALITY, COMPleXITY, AND Taxonomies
      5. Question ANSWERING
      6. Question ASKING
      7. CONCLUSION AND FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Portable Text Summarization
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. Language dependent processing
      5. Language independent processing
      6. ApplicationS of automatic text summarization
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 3: Discourse Analysis and ANLP
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Discourse Analysis and ANLP (or Lack Thereof)
      4. TALK AS TOPIC
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. THEMES IN DISCOURSE RESEARCH
      7. FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: NLP for Search
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Adding NLP to Search
      4. Semantic Search2
      5. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 5: Data Mining
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. DATA MINING In THE APPLIED NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING context
      5. Open Problems and Future Research Directions
      6. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 6: Dialogue Acts and Dialogue Structure
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. Units of dialogue
      5. Related Work
      6. inferring dialogue STRUCTURE
      7. Evaluation of dialogue segmentation
      8. FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
      9. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 7: Text-to-Text Similarity of Sentences
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. PARAPHRASE: A TEXT-TO-TEXT SEMANTIC RELATION
      5. FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
      6. Conclusion
    8. Chapter 8: Practical Programming for NLP
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROGRAMMING BASICS
      4. A STEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLE
      5. HOW TO CONDUCT AN NLP PROGRAMMING PROJECT
      6. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 2: Successful ANLP Applications or Systems
    1. Chapter 9: LSA in the Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUMMARY STREET: A COMPUTER-BASED LEARNING TOOL
      4. Large-Scale Evaluation Study
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 10: AutoTutor
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. AUTOTUTOR MECHANISMS
      4. AutoTutor Architecture
      5. Evaluation of AutoTutor
      6. FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS AND AUTOTUTOR EXTENSIONS
    3. Chapter 11: Coh-Metrix
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Readability vs. Cohesion: Why Coh-Metrix was Developed
      4. Coh-Metrix Measures of Language and Cohesion
      5. Applied Natural Language Processing Studies using Coh-Metrix
      6. Coh-Metrix Text Easability Components
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 12: Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. The LIWC Dictionary
      5. The LIWC Processor
      6. LIWC as an ANLP Tool
      7. Word Features
      8. Applications
      9. Discussion
      10. Future Research Directions
      11. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 13: HiDEx
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTRODUCTION TO HAL
      4. BACKGROUND: ASSESSMENT OF HAL AND RELATED MODELS
      5. HIDEX: PARAMETERS, ALGORITHMS, AND RESOURCES
      6. HIDEX: USE AND METHODS
      7. PARAMETER OpTIMIZATION and FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 14: Computational Aspects of the Intelligent Tutoring System MetaTutor
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Previous Work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems with Natural Language
      4. The ARCHITECTURE OF METATUTOR
      5. MENTAL MODEL DETECTION
      6. SUB-GOAL GENERATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 15: Applying NLP Metrics to Students’ Self-Explanations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. iSTART
      4. CURRENT STUDY
      5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
    8. Chapter 16: Computer-Aided Rhetorical Analysis
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Our Approach
      4. Developing the Standard Dictionary
      5. The DocuScope Environment as a System
      6. Applications
  10. Section 3: New Research in ANLP
    1. Chapter 17: The Writing-Pal
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN OVERVIEW OF W-PAL
      4. W-PAL MODULES
      5. NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN W-PAL
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 18: The Gramulator
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WHAT IS THE GRAMULATOR?
      3. THE RELEVANCE OF THE GRAMULATOR
      4. THE GRAMULATOR APPROACH
      5. THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS: N-GRAMS
      6. THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE GRAMULATOR
      7. THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE GRAMULATOR
      8. STUDIES USING THE GRAMULATOR
      9. VALIDATION STUDY
      10. RESULTS
      11. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 19: The Role of Textual Graph Patterns in Discovering Event Causality
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. related work
      4. textual graph representations
      5. Extracting patterns from textual graphs
      6. Pattern matching
      7. graph classification
      8. experimental results
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. conclusion
    4. Chapter 20: Play-by-Play Learning for Textual User Interfaces
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. The PLOW System
      4. Adding Support for Textual User Interfaces
      5. Collaborative Tasks
      6. Evaluation
      7. Related Work
      8. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 21: Computationally Assessing Expert Judgments of Freewriting Quality
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. APPENDIX A
      7. APPENDIX B
    6. Chapter 22: Morphological Analysis of Ill-Formed Arabic Verbs for Second Language Learners
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEXICAL ERROR ANALYSIS
      4. THE ARABIC MORPHOLOGY SYSTEM
      5. ARABIC LEXICAL ERROR TYPOLOGY
      6. THE PROPOSED MODEL
      7. EXPERIMENT
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 23: Dynamic Effects of Repeating a Timed Writing Task in Two EFL University Courses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 24: A Comparative Study of an Unsupervised Word Sense Disambiguation Approach
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. Related work
      5. SENSATIONAL and its Application
      6. Experiment and results
      7. Discussion and future work
    9. Chapter 25: Interlanguage Talk
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. Introduction
      3. Interlanguage
      4. Methods
      5. Results
      6. Discussion
      7. Conclusion
    10. Chapter 26: Maximizing ANLP Evaluation
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. Main FOCUS OF the CHAPTER
      5. Method
      6. Results
      7. FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
      8. Conclusion
    11. Chapter 27: Newness and Givenness of Information
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. APPENDIX: SAMPLE TEXT
    12. Chapter 28: Semantic Methods for Textual Entailment
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BAckgrouND RESULTS
      4. Entailment Assuming Word Disambiguation
      5. RTE with Fully AutoMated Automated WSD
      6. FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
      7. Conclusion
    13. Chapter 29: Mining and Visualizing the Narration Tree of Hadiths (Prophetic Traditions)
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. Background
      4. Proposed System
      5. evaluation and results
      6. Conclusion and future research directions
    14. Chapter 30: Using Event Semantics for Toponym Disambiguation
      1. Abstract
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS WORK
      4. THE geo-ontology
      5. event structures
      6. retrieval of geo-locations
      7. disambiguation of toponyms
      8. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      9. FuTURE rESEARCH dIRECTIONS
      10. Conclusion
    15. Chapter 31: Evaluation of Narrative and Expository Text Summaries Using Latent Semantic Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUMMARY AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE UNDERSTANDING OF WRITTEN DISCOURSE
      4. LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS (LSA)
      5. RELATED STUDIES
      6. THE STUDY
      7. RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 32: Using LIWC and Coh-Metrix to Investigate Gender Differences in Linguistic Styles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. APPENDIX A
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Contributors