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Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research

Book Description

Details the water research applications of nanotechnology in various areas including environmental science, remediation, membranes, nanomaterials, and water treatment

At the nano size, materials often take on unique and sometimes unexpected properties that result in them being 'tuned' to build faster, lighter, stronger, and more efficient devices and systems, as well as creating new classes of materials. In water research, nanotechnology is applied to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems, as well as to provide instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality.

This volume presents an array of cutting-edge nanotechnology research in water applications including treatment, remediation, sensing, and pollution prevention. Nanotechnology applications for waste water research have significant impact in maintaining the long-term quality, availability, and viability of water. Regardless of the origin, such as municipal or industrial waste water, its remediation utilizing nanotechnology can not only be recycled and desalinized, but it can simultaneously detect biological and chemical contamination.

Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research describes a broad area of nanotechnology and water research where membrane processes (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and nanoreactive membranes) are considered key components of advanced water purification and desalination technologies that remove, reduce, or neutralize water contaminants that threaten human health and/or ecosystem productivity and integrity. Various nanoparticles and nanomaterials that could be used in water remediation (zeolites, carbon nanotubes, self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports, biopolymers, single-enzyme nanoparticles, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, bimetallic iron nanoparticles, and nanoscale semiconductor photocatalysts) are discussed. The book also covers water-borne infectious diseases as well as water-borne pathogens, microbes, and toxicity approach.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Preface
  6. Part 1: General
    1. Chapter 1: Nanotechnology and Water: Ethical and Regulatory Considerations
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Ethics and Nanotechnology
      3. 1.3 Legal and Regulatory Issues and Concerns Related to the Application of Nanotechnology in the Water Sector
      4. 1.4 Nanotechnology, Water and Human Health Research
      5. 1.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    2. Chapter 2: Nanoparticles Released into Water Systems from Nanoproducts and Structural Nanocomposites Applications
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Case Study on Polyurethane/Organically-Modified Montmorillonite (PU/OMMT) Nanofoam Nanoparticles in Water Suspension
      3. 2.3 Methodology
      4. 2.4 Results and Discussion
      5. 2.5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgement
      7. References
  7. Part 2: Remediation
    1. Chapter 3: Prospects for Immobilization of Microbial Sorbents on Carbon Nanotubes for Biosorption: Bioremediation of Heavy Metals Polluted Water
      1. 3.1 Dispersion of Metal Pollutants in Water Sources
      2. 3.2 Removal of Metal by Conventional Methods
      3. 3.3 Microbial Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Heavy Metals from Water
      4. 3.4 Immobilization of Microbial Sorbents on CNTs
      5. 3.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    2. Chapter 4: Plasma Technology: A New Remediation for Water Purification with or without Nanoparticles
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Water Purification Using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP)
      3. 4.3 Nanoparticle Synthesis Using Plasma and Its Application towards Water Purification
      4. 4.4 Application of Plasma for Water Purification
      5. 4.5 Combined Action of Nanoparticles and Plasma for Water Purification
      6. 4.6 Conclusion
      7. References
    3. Chapter 5: Polysaccharide-Based Nanosorbents in Water Remediation
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Water Pollution
      3. 5.3 Hazardous Effects of Toxic Metal Ions
      4. 5.4 Technologies for Water Remediation
      5. 5.5 Shortcomings of the Technologies Used for Water Remediation
      6. 5.6 Nanotechnology
      7. 5.7 Polysaccharides
      8. 5.8 Advantages of Using Polysaccharides for Removal of Toxic Metal Ions
      9. 5.9 Brief Review of the Work Done
      10. References
  8. Part 3: Membranes & Carbon Nanotubes
    1. Chapter 6: The Use of Carbonaceous Nanomembrane Filter for Organic Waste Removal
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Organic Wastes and Organic Pollutant
      3. 6.3 Low-Cost Adsorbents
      4. 6.4 Heavy Metals
      5. 6.5 Composite Materials
      6. 6.6 Carbonaceous Materials
      7. 6.7 Experimental
      8. 6.8 Nanomaterials
      9. 6.9 Summary and Future Directions
      10. References
    2. Chapter 7: Carbon Nanotubes in the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Synthesis of CNTs
      3. 7.3 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes
      4. 7.4 Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions on Carbon Nanotubes
      5. 7.5 Competitive Adsorption
      6. 7.6 Summary and Conclusion
      7. References
    3. Chapter 8: Application of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites and Carbon Nanotube-Semiconductor Hybrids in Water Treatment
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Classification of Dyes
      3. 8.3 Conventional Treatment Technologies for Textile Effluent
      4. 8.4 Conclusion
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
    4. Chapter 9: Advances in Nanotechnologies for Point-of-Use and Point-of-Entry Water Purification
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Nanotechnology-Enabled POU/POE Systems for Drinking Water Treatment
      3. 9.3 Absorptive Nanocomposites Polymers Based on Cyclodextrins
      4. 9.4 Nanotechnology-Based Membrane Filtration
      5. 9.5 Ceramic-Based Filters and Nanofibers
      6. 9.6 Challenges and Opportunities
      7. References
  9. Part 4: Nanomaterials
    1. Chapter 10: Mesoporous Materials as Potential Absorbents for Water Purification
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Generalized Synthesis of Mesoporous Materials
      3. 10.3 Common Method of Synthesizing Silicate Mesoporous Molecular Sieves
      4. 10.4 Adsorption of Heavy Metals
      5. 10.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    2. Chapter 11: Removal of Fluoride from Potable Water Using Smart Nanomaterial as Adsorbent
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Technologies for Defluoridation
      3. 11.3 Conclusions
      4. Acknowledgement
      5. References
    3. Chapter 12: Chemical Nanosensors for Monitoring Environmental Pollution
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Conclusion
      3. 12.3 Challenges and Future Prospect
      4. Acknowledgements
      5. References
    4. Chapter 13: Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol as a Model Reaction for Nanocatalysis
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Kinetic Evaluation and Mechanism of 4-NP Reduction
      3. 13.3 Effect of Various Conditions
      4. 13.4 Synthetic Methods of Metal Nanocomposites and Their 4-NP Catalysis
      5. 13.5 Conclusion
      6. References
  10. Part 5: Water Treatment
    1. Chapter 14: Doped Diamond Electrodes for Water Treatment
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Calculation Method
      3. 14.3 Calculation Results and Discussions
      4. 14.4 Conclusions
      5. References
    2. Chapter 15: Multifunctional Silver, Copper and Zero Valent Iron Metallic Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Metal Nanoparticles and Microbial Inactivation
      3. 15.3 Metal Nanoparticles for Heavy Metal and Dye Removal
      4. 15.4 Multifunctional Hybrid Nanoparticles -Ag, Cu and ZVI
      5. 15.5 Mechanism of Action
      6. 15.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Trends
      7. Acknowledgement
      8. References
    3. Chapter 16: Iron Oxide Materials for Photo-Fenton Conversion of Water Pollutants
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.2 Experimental
      3. 16.3 Results and Discussion
      4. 16.4 Conclusions
      5. Acknowledgments
      6. References
    4. Chapter 17: Nanomaterials with Uniform Composition in Wastewater Treatment and Their Applications
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Experimental
      3. 17.3 Effects of Pollutants on Health and the Environment
      4. 17.4 Summary and Future Directions
      5. References
  11. Index