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Application Development Using Visual Basic® and .NET by Dana L. Wyatt, Peter Thorsteinson, Robert J. Oberg

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Input and Output in .NET

Programming languages have undergone an evolution in how they deal with the important topic of input/output (I/O). Early languages, such as FORTRAN, COBOL, and the original BASIC, had I/O statements built into the language. Later languages have tended not to have I/O built into the language, but instead rely on a standard library for performing I/O, such as the <stdio.h> library in C. The library in languages like C works directly with files.

Still later languages, such as C++ and Java, introduced a further abstraction called a stream. A stream serves as an intermediary between the program and the file. Read and write operations are done to the stream, which is tied to a file. This architecture is very flexible, because ...

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