You are previewing Apple® Automator with AppleScript® Bible.
O'Reilly logo
Apple® Automator with AppleScript® Bible

Book Description

One-stop reference helps you get the most out of AppleScript and Automator

One of the handiest ways to streamline your workload is to automate some of your most routine computer tasks. Mac users are lucky in that they have AppleScript and Automator automation tools built right in. This comprehensive guide shows you how to tap both these useful Mac features for Mac OS X and regularly perform such tasks as extracting unread e-mails from your Mail, scheduling workflows, and manually recording actions to create new automated routines.

  • Brings you up to speed on Apple's built-in automation tools for Mac OS X, including a more thorough look at Automator than in many books, and shows you how you can automate many of your most repetitive or error-prone tasks

  • Explains how to automate aspects of some of your favorite Mac features, such as iCal, Mail, iPhoto, iTunes, and iDVD

  • Covers how to manipulate files and folders; work with PDFs, emails, and Web pages; schedule workflows; set up watch folders; create and use variables; manually record actions; and create AppleScripts that further automate functions

The instruction in this detailed guide will help you increase your productivity using Automator and AppleScript.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Introduction
    1. Who the Book Is For
    2. How the Book Is Organized
  7. Dive into Automator and AppleScript
    1. Why Is Automation Important?
    2. Who Uses Automation?
    3. Introducing Automator
      1. Actions
      2. Variables
      3. Creating your first basic workflow
      4. Customizing your first workflow
      5. Options for saving your workflow
    4. Introducing AppleScript
    5. Summary
  8. I. The Fundamentals of Automation
    1. 1. What Is Automation?
      1. 1.1. Why You Should Use Automation
      2. 1.2. A Brief History of Automation
        1. 1.2.1. Differences between mechanization and automation
        2. 1.2.2. Negative connotations of automation
        3. 1.2.3. Positive changes due to automation
      3. 1.3. Examples of Automation
        1. 1.3.1. Data entry or collection
        2. 1.3.2. Data analysis
        3. 1.3.3. Data munging
        4. 1.3.4. Data extraction
        5. 1.3.5. Data transformation
        6. 1.3.6. Data integration
        7. 1.3.7. Launching applications and scripts
        8. 1.3.8. Communications
        9. 1.3.9. Setting up reminders
        10. 1.3.10. Systems maintenance and backups
      4. 1.4. Why Automate?
        1. 1.4.1. Save time
        2. 1.4.2. Save effort
        3. 1.4.3. Simplify a process
        4. 1.4.4. Reduce errors
        5. 1.4.5. Save on manpower
        6. 1.4.6. Save money
      5. 1.5. Summary
    2. 2. Automation from a User's Perspective
      1. 2.1. The Mac User's Viewpoint
        1. 2.1.1. Typical activities to automate
        2. 2.1.2. Taking inventory
      2. 2.2. The Professional's Viewpoint
        1. 2.2.1. The software developer's needs
        2. 2.2.2. The system administrator's needs
        3. 2.2.3. The creative's needs
      3. 2.3. The Small Business Owner's Viewpoint
        1. 2.3.1. What processes need automating?
        2. 2.3.2. What files and data need automating?
        3. 2.3.3. Where's the ROI?
      4. 2.4. Summary
    3. 3. Automator Basics
      1. 3.1. Opening Automator for the First Time
      2. 3.2. The Automator Interface
        1. 3.2.1. The Toolbar
        2. 3.2.2. The Actions library
        3. 3.2.3. The Variables library
        4. 3.2.4. The Footer
      3. 3.3. What Are Workflows?
      4. 3.4. What Kinds of Workflows Are Possible?
      5. 3.5. What Are Actions?
      6. 3.6. What Else Can I Do with Actions?
      7. 3.7. How Can Workflows Be Saved?
        1. 3.7.1. Save as workflow
        2. 3.7.2. Save as application
        3. 3.7.3. Save as plugin
      8. 3.8. What Are Templates?
      9. 3.9. Summary
    4. 4. Advanced Automator Topics
      1. 4.1. Working with Variables
        1. 4.1.1. What is a variable?
        2. 4.1.2. Types of variables
          1. 4.1.2.1. Date & Time variables
          2. 4.1.2.2. Locations variables
          3. 4.1.2.3. System variables
          4. 4.1.2.4. Text & Data variables
          5. 4.1.2.5. User variables
          6. 4.1.2.6. Utilities variables
        3. 4.1.3. Adding variables to workflows
        4. 4.1.4. Using variables in a workflow
      2. 4.2. Working with Loops
        1. 4.2.1. What is a loop?
        2. 4.2.2. Setting up a loop
      3. 4.3. A Closer Look at Plugins
        1. 4.3.1. Finder plugins
        2. 4.3.2. Calendar plugins
        3. 4.3.3. Other plugins
      4. 4.4. Recording Manual Events
        1. 4.4.1. First things first: Set up accessibility
        2. 4.4.2. Recording a manual event
      5. 4.5. Summary
  9. II. A Detailed Look at AppleScript
    1. 5. AppleScript Basics
      1. 5.1. What Is AppleScript?
      2. 5.2. A Brief History of AppleScript
      3. 5.3. Why AppleScript?
      4. 5.4. AppleScript Editor
        1. 5.4.1. Starting AppleScript Editor
        2. 5.4.2. The AppleScript Editor GUI
        3. 5.4.3. Basic operations
        4. 5.4.4. Comments and error messages
        5. 5.4.5. Saving your scripts
      5. 5.5. The AppleScript Editor Menus
        1. 5.5.1. AppleScript Editor menu
        2. 5.5.2. File menu
        3. 5.5.3. Edit menu
        4. 5.5.4. View menu
        5. 5.5.5. Script menu
        6. 5.5.6. Font menu
        7. 5.5.7. Format menu
        8. 5.5.8. Window menu
        9. 5.5.9. Help menu
      6. 5.6. The Script Menu
      7. 5.7. Summary
    2. 6. AppleScript Objects and Dictionaries
      1. 6.1. What Are Objects?
        1. 6.1.1. AppleScript is an object-oriented language
        2. 6.1.2. Everything you work with is an object
        3. 6.1.3. Objects include properties and actions
        4. 6.1.4. Even the script you're working with is an object
        5. 6.1.5. A quick tour of script objects
      2. 6.2. What Are Dictionaries?
      3. 6.3. How to Use Dictionaries
      4. 6.4. A Quick Tour of Dictionaries
        1. 6.4.1. Viewing by suite
        2. 6.4.2. Viewing by containment
        3. 6.4.3. Viewing by inheritance
      5. 6.5. Looking Up an AppleScript
      6. 6.6. Summary
    3. 7. Working with Variables and Properties
      1. 7.1. What Are Variables?
        1. 7.1.1. Creating variables
        2. 7.1.2. Getting the value of a variable
        3. 7.1.3. Working with lists
        4. 7.1.4. Working with records
        5. 7.1.5. Global variables
      2. 7.2. What Are Properties?
      3. 7.3. Creating Three Simple Scripts
        1. 7.3.1. Script 1: Play random iTunes track
        2. 7.3.2. Script 2: Copy files from one directory to another
        3. 7.3.3. Script 3: View today's events in iCal
      4. 7.4. Summary
    4. 8. Operators, Expressions, and Statements
      1. 8.1. What Are Operators?
        1. 8.1.1. Logical operators
          1. 8.1.1.1. Logical conjunction (and)
          2. 8.1.1.2. Logical disjunction (or)
          3. 8.1.1.3. Negation (not)
          4. 8.1.1.4. Equality
          5. 8.1.1.5. Inequality
          6. 8.1.1.6. Greater than
          7. 8.1.1.7. Less than
          8. 8.1.1.8. Greater than or equal to
          9. 8.1.1.9. Less than or equal to
        2. 8.1.2. Mathematical operators
          1. 8.1.2.1. Multiplication (*)
          2. 8.1.2.2. Addition (+)
          3. 8.1.2.3. Subtraction (−)
          4. 8.1.2.4. Division (/)
          5. 8.1.2.5. Integral division (div)
          6. 8.1.2.6. Modulus (mod)
          7. 8.1.2.7. 10 mod 3 -- results in 1Exponentiation (^)
        3. 8.1.3. Other operators
          1. 8.1.3.1. Concatenation
          2. 8.1.3.2. Containment
          3. 8.1.3.3. Object reference
        4. 8.1.4. Operator precedence
        5. 8.1.5. What is coercion?
        6. 8.1.6. Considering and ignoring
      2. 8.2. What Are Expressions?
      3. 8.3. What Are Statements?
      4. 8.4. Writing Scripts
        1. 8.4.1. Script 1: Checking for e-mail validity
        2. 8.4.2. Script 2: Inspect the Trash
      5. 8.5. Summary
    5. 9. Conditionals and Loops
      1. 9.1. What Are Conditional Tests and Loops?
      2. 9.2. Conditional Tests
        1. 9.2.1. The if test
        2. 9.2.2. The two-value if test
        3. 9.2.3. The multi-value if test
      3. 9.3. Repeating Loops
        1. 9.3.1. Repeating forever
        2. 9.3.2. Repeating a set number of times
        3. 9.3.3. Repeating with defined start and stop values
        4. 9.3.4. Repeating until something is true
        5. 9.3.5. Repeating while something is true
        6. 9.3.6. Repeating with a list
      4. 9.4. Writing Scripts
        1. 9.4.1. Script 1: Check if folder exists
        2. 9.4.2. Script 2: Export e-mail addresses
      5. 9.5. Summary
    6. 10. Handling User Input
      1. 10.1. What Is User Input?
      2. 10.2. Sending a Message to the User
        1. 10.2.1. The beep command
        2. 10.2.2. The say command
        3. 10.2.3. The display dialog command
      3. 10.3. Asking for Text Input
      4. 10.4. Working with Buttons
      5. 10.5. Choosing Folders and Files
      6. 10.6. Choosing from a List
      7. 10.7. Choosing an Application
      8. 10.8. Summary
    7. 11. AppleScript Subroutines
      1. 11.1. What Are Subroutines?
      2. 11.2. Defining a Subroutine
      3. 11.3. Running a Subroutine
      4. 11.4. Using Loops, Conditionals, and Variables in Subroutines
      5. 11.5. Recursive Subroutines
      6. 11.6. Reusing Subroutines
      7. 11.7. Some Useful Subroutines
        1. 11.7.1. Subroutine 1: Create a folder
        2. 11.7.2. Subroutine 2: Move an item to the Trash
        3. 11.7.3. Subroutine 3: Count items in a folder
      8. 11.8. Summary
    8. 12. Applets and Droplets
      1. 12.1. What Are Applets?
      2. 12.2. Three Applets
        1. 12.2.1. Open a Web page in Safari
        2. 12.2.2. Run a shell script
        3. 12.2.3. Get file size
      3. 12.3. What Are Droplets?
      4. 12.4. Two Droplets
        1. 12.4.1. Get file size
        2. 12.4.2. Set the desktop background
      5. 12.5. Summary
    9. 13. Folder Actions
      1. 13.1. What Are Folder Actions?
      2. 13.2. Enabling Folder Actions
      3. 13.3. Folder Action Scripts
      4. 13.4. Creating Your First Folder Action Script
      5. 13.5. Creating Folder Action Plug-ins with Automator
      6. 13.6. Summary
    10. 14. AppleScript Studio
      1. 14.1. What Is AppleScript Studio?
      2. 14.2. How Do You Access AppleScript Studio?
      3. 14.3. What Can You Do with AppleScript Studio?
      4. 14.4. Pros and Cons
      5. 14.5. Your First AppleScript Studio Project
      6. 14.6. Summary
  10. III. Automation Projects
    1. 15. Ten Automation Projects for Files and Folders
      1. 15.1. The Projects
      2. 15.2. Creating a Basic Workflow to Process Specific Files
        1. 15.2.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.2.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.2.3. Advanced topics
      3. 15.3. Converting a Basic Workflow to Accept Any Files
        1. 15.3.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.3.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.3.3. Advanced topics
      4. 15.4. Finding Files and Folders and Renaming Them
        1. 15.4.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.4.2. Using AppleScript
      5. 15.5. Finding Files and Folders and Trashing Them
        1. 15.5.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.5.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.5.3. Advanced topics
      6. 15.6. Creating Aliases for Files and Folders
        1. 15.6.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.6.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.6.3. Advanced topics
      7. 15.7. Filtering Finder Items
        1. 15.7.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.7.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.7.3. Advanced topics
      8. 15.8. Connecting to a Server
        1. 15.8.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.8.2. Using AppleScript
      9. 15.9. Getting Folder Contents
        1. 15.9.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.9.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.9.3. Advanced topics
      10. 15.10. Opening Files with the Proper Application
        1. 15.10.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.10.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.10.3. Advanced topics
      11. 15.11. Setting Spotlight Comments for Files and Folders
        1. 15.11.1. Using Automator
        2. 15.11.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 15.11.3. Advanced topics
      12. 15.12. Summary
    2. 16. Ten Automation Projects for Music and Audio Files
      1. 16.1. The Projects
      2. 16.2. Playing a Specific iTunes Song
        1. 16.2.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.2.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 16.2.3. Advanced topics
      3. 16.3. Adding Songs to a Playlist
        1. 16.3.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.3.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 16.3.3. Advanced topics
      4. 16.4. Filtering iTunes Songs
        1. 16.4.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.4.2. Advanced topics
      5. 16.5. Setting iTunes Volume
        1. 16.5.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.5.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 16.5.3. Advanced topics
      6. 16.6. Pausing and Playing iTunes
        1. 16.6.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.6.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 16.6.3. Advanced topics
      7. 16.7. Setting Information on iTunes Songs
        1. 16.7.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.7.2. Using AppleScript
      8. 16.8. Removing Empty Playlists
      9. 16.9. Changing Case of Song Names
        1. 16.9.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.9.2. Advanced topics
      10. 16.10. Converting Text to Audio Files
        1. 16.10.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.10.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 16.10.3. Advanced topics
      11. 16.11. Adding Audio Files to an iPod
        1. 16.11.1. Using Automator
        2. 16.11.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 16.11.3. Advanced topics
      12. 16.12. Summary
    3. 17. Ten Automation Projects for Photos and Images
      1. 17.1. The Projects
      2. 17.2. Applying Color Changes to Groups of Images
        1. 17.2.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.2.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 17.2.3. Advanced topics
      3. 17.3. Cropping and Resizing Images
        1. 17.3.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.3.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 17.3.3. Advanced topics
      4. 17.4. Creating Thumbnails
        1. 17.4.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.4.2. Advanced topics
      5. 17.5. Converting Images
        1. 17.5.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.5.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 17.5.3. Advanced topics
      6. 17.6. Flipping and Rotating Images
        1. 17.6.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.6.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 17.6.3. Advanced topics
      7. 17.7. Finding Specific Images
        1. 17.7.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.7.2. Advanced topics
      8. 17.8. Importing Images to iPhoto
        1. 17.8.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.8.2. Advanced topics
      9. 17.9. Exporting Images from iPhoto
      10. 17.10. Reviewing Photos in a PDF Contact Sheet
        1. 17.10.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.10.2. Advanced topics
      11. 17.11. Automating Taking Pictures with a Digital Camera
        1. 17.11.1. Using Automator
        2. 17.11.2. Using AppleScript
      12. 17.12. Summary
    4. 18. Ten Automation Projects for Text Files
      1. 18.1. The Projects
      2. 18.2. Opening Text Files
        1. 18.2.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.2.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 18.2.3. Advanced topics
      3. 18.3. Asking for Text from the User
        1. 18.3.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.3.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 18.3.3. Advanced topics
      4. 18.4. Getting a Specific Word
        1. 18.4.1. Using AppleScript
        2. 18.4.2. Advanced topics
      5. 18.5. Getting a Specific Character
        1. 18.5.1. Using AppleScript
        2. 18.5.2. Advanced topics
      6. 18.6. Getting a Specific Paragraph
        1. 18.6.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.6.2. Using AppleScript
      7. 18.7. Combining Text Files
        1. 18.7.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.7.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 18.7.3. Advanced topics
      8. 18.8. Getting the Definition of a Word
        1. 18.8.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.8.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 18.8.3. Advanced topics
      9. 18.9. Using BBEdit: Working with Quotes
        1. 18.9.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.9.2. Using AppleScript
      10. 18.10. Using BBEdit: Convert Spaces to Tabs
        1. 18.10.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.10.2. Using AppleScript
      11. 18.11. Using BBEdit: Zapping Gremlins
        1. 18.11.1. Using Automator
        2. 18.11.2. Using AppleScript
      12. 18.12. Summary
    5. 19. Ten Custom Automation Projects
      1. 19.1. The Projects
      2. 19.2. Finding Specific Contacts in Address Book
        1. 19.2.1. Using Automator
        2. 19.2.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 19.2.3. Advanced topics
      3. 19.3. Finding People with Birthdays
        1. 19.3.1. Using Automator
        2. 19.3.2. Advanced topics
      4. 19.4. Creating a Group Mailer
        1. 19.4.1. Using Automator
        2. 19.4.2. Advanced topics
      5. 19.5. Finding Specific Calendar Items
        1. 19.5.1. Using Automator
        2. 19.5.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 19.5.3. Advanced topics
      6. 19.6. Getting New Mail Messages
        1. 19.6.1. Using Automator
        2. 19.6.2. Using AppleScript
        3. 19.6.3. Advanced topics
      7. 19.7. Combining Mail Messages
        1. 19.7.1. Using Automator
        2. 19.7.2. Advanced topics
      8. 19.8. Adding Attachments to Messages
      9. 19.9. Extracting Text from PDFs
        1. 19.9.1. Using Automator
        2. 19.9.2. Advanced topics
      10. 19.10. Extracting PDF Pages
      11. 19.11. Downloading Specific URLs
      12. 19.12. Summary
  11. IV. Appendixes
    1. A. Automator Resources
      1. A.1. Web-Based Tutorials
        1. A.1.1. VTC Mac OS X Automator tutorials
        2. A.1.2. Automator.us
      2. A.2. Online Community
        1. A.2.1. Automator World
        2. A.2.2. Automator-dev mailing list
      3. A.3. Tools and Downloads
        1. A.3.1. Photoshop Action Pack
        2. A.3.2. OttoMate
        3. A.3.3. Automated Workflows
      4. A.4. Training
        1. A.4.1. Automated Workflows
        2. A.4.2. TECSoft
      5. A.5. Summary
    2. B. AppleScript Resources
      1. B.1. Web-Based Tutorials
        1. B.1.1. MacResearch AppleScript tutorials
        2. B.1.2. MacScripter
        3. B.1.3. MacTech
        4. B.1.4. Video tutorials on the Web
      2. B.2. Online Community
        1. B.2.1. MacScripter
      3. B.3. Tools and Downloads
        1. B.3.1. Doug's AppleScripts for iTunes
        2. B.3.2. AppleScript downloads on CNET
      4. B.4. Training
      5. B.5. Summary
    3. C. AppleScript Reference
      1. C.1. Class Reference
        1. C.1.1. Alias
          1. C.1.1.1. Properties
          2. C.1.1.2. Coercions
          3. C.1.1.3. Example
        2. C.1.2. Application
          1. C.1.2.1. Properties
          2. C.1.2.2. Coercions
          3. C.1.2.3. Example
        3. C.1.3. Boolean
          1. C.1.3.1. Properties
          2. C.1.3.2. Operators
          3. C.1.3.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.3.4. Example
        4. C.1.4. Class
          1. C.1.4.1. Properties
          2. C.1.4.2. Operators
          3. C.1.4.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.4.4. Example
        5. C.1.5. Constant
          1. C.1.5.1. Properties
          2. C.1.5.2. Operators
          3. C.1.5.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.5.4. Example
        6. C.1.6. Date
          1. C.1.6.1. Properties
          2. C.1.6.2. Operators
          3. C.1.6.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.6.4. Examples
        7. C.1.7. File
          1. C.1.7.1. Coercions
          2. C.1.7.2. Example
        8. C.1.8. Integer
          1. C.1.8.1. Properties
          2. C.1.8.2. Operators
          3. C.1.8.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.8.4. Examples
        9. C.1.9. List
          1. C.1.9.1. Properties
          2. C.1.9.2. Coercions
          3. C.1.9.3. Examples
        10. C.1.10. Number
          1. C.1.10.1. Properties
          2. C.1.10.2. Operators
          3. C.1.10.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.10.4. Examples
        11. C.1.11. POSIX file
          1. C.1.11.1. Properties
          2. C.1.11.2. Coercions
          3. C.1.11.3. Example
        12. C.1.12. Real
          1. C.1.12.1. Properties
          2. C.1.12.2. Operators
          3. C.1.12.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.12.4. Examples
        13. C.1.13. Record
          1. C.1.13.1. Properties
          2. C.1.13.2. Operators
          3. C.1.13.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.13.4. Example
        14. C.1.14. Script
          1. C.1.14.1. Properties
          2. C.1.14.2. Coercions
          3. C.1.14.3. Example
        15. C.1.15. Text
          1. C.1.15.1. Properties
          2. C.1.15.2. Elements
          3. C.1.15.3. Coercions
          4. C.1.15.4. Examples
      2. C.2. Commands Reference
      3. C.3. Operators Reference
        1. C.3.1. Logical operators
          1. C.3.1.1. Logical conjunction (and)
          2. C.3.1.2. Logical disjunction (or)
          3. C.3.1.3. Negation (not)
          4. C.3.1.4. Equality
          5. C.3.1.5. Inequality
          6. C.3.1.6. Greater than
          7. C.3.1.7. Less than
          8. C.3.1.8. Greater than or equal to
          9. C.3.1.9. Less than or equal to
        2. C.3.2. Mathematical operators
          1. C.3.2.1. Multiplication (*)
          2. C.3.2.2. Addition (+)
          3. C.3.2.3. Subtraction (-)
          4. C.3.2.4. Division (/)
          5. C.3.2.5. Integral division (div)
          6. C.3.2.6. Remainder (mod)
          7. C.3.2.7. Exponentiation (^)
        3. C.3.3. Other operators
          1. C.3.3.1. Concatenation
          2. C.3.3.2. Containment
      4. C.4. Control Statements Reference
        1. C.4.1. Considering and ignoring
        2. C.4.2. If
        3. C.4.3. Repeat
        4. C.4.4. Tell
        5. C.4.5. Try
      5. C.5. Handler Reference
      6. C.6. AppleScript Reserved Keywords
      7. C.7. AppleScript Error Numbers
      8. C.8. Summary
    4. D. Automator Actions and Variables
      1. D.1. Actions
        1. D.1.1. Calendar
        2. D.1.2. Contacts
        3. D.1.3. Files & Folders
        4. D.1.4. Fonts
        5. D.1.5. Internet
        6. D.1.6. Mail
        7. D.1.7. Movies
        8. D.1.8. Music
        9. D.1.9. PDFs
        10. D.1.10. Photos
        11. D.1.11. Text
        12. D.1.12. Utilities
        13. D.1.13. Most Used
      2. D.2. Variables
        1. D.2.1. Date & Time
        2. D.2.2. Locations
        3. D.2.3. System
        4. D.2.4. Text & Data
        5. D.2.5. User
        6. D.2.6. Utilities
      3. D.3. Summary