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Antennas and Wave Propagation by G. S. N. Raju

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Chapter 1

Mathematical Preliminaries

“Mathematics is the backbone of all branches of Sciences and Engineering.”

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

This chapter discusses

  • Coordinate systems
  • Vector algebra and calculus
  • Series and identities
  • Determinants and matrices
  • Trigonometry
  • Differential and Integral formulae
  • Antenna related scalar and vector quantities
  • Objective questions and solved problems useful for class tests, final examinations and also for competitive examinations
  • Exercise problems to develop self problem solving skills
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF SCALARS AND VECTORS

A scalar has magnitude and an algebraic sign.

For example, temperature, mass, charge, work and so on.

A vector has both magnitude and direction.

For example, velocity, force, electric field, ...

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