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## Mathematical Preliminaries

“Mathematics is the backbone of all branches of Sciences and Engineering.”

##### CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

This chapter discusses

• Coordinate systems
• Vector algebra and calculus
• Series and identities
• Determinants and matrices
• Trigonometry
• Differential and Integral formulae
• Antenna related scalar and vector quantities
• Objective questions and solved problems useful for class tests, final examinations and also for competitive examinations
• Exercise problems to develop self problem solving skills
##### 1.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF SCALARS AND VECTORS

A scalar has magnitude and an algebraic sign.

For example, temperature, mass, charge, work and so on.

A vector has both magnitude and direction.

For example, velocity, force, electric field, ...

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