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Antennas and Wave Propagation

Book Description

Antennas and Wave Propagation is written for the first course on the same. The book begins with an introduction that discusses the fundamental concepts, notations, representation and principles that govern the field of antennas. A separate chapter on mathematical preliminaries is discussed followed by chapters on every aspect of antennas from Maxwell's equations to antenna array analysis, antenna array synthesis, antenna measurements and wave propagation.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Introduction
    1. Frequency Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves
  8. Chapter 1. Mathematical Preliminaries
    1. 1.1 Fundamentals of Scalars and Vectors
    2. 1.2 Coordinate Systems
      1. 1.2.1 Cartesian Coordinate System
      2. 1.2.2 Cylindrical Coordinate System
      3. 1.2.3 Spherical Coordinate System
    3. 1.3 Del (∇) Operator
    4. 1.4 Gradient of a Scalar V (= ∇V)
    5. 1.5 Divergence of a Vector A (= ∇ . A)
    6. 1.6 Curl of a Vector (≡ ∇ × a)
      1. 1.6.1 Vector Identities
    7. 1.7 Laplacian Operator (∇2)
    8. 1.8 Dirac Delta
    9. 1.9 Decibel and Neper Concepts
    10. 1.10 Complex Numbers
      1. 1.10.1 Properties of Complex Numbers
    11. 1.11 Logarithmic Series and Identities
    12. 1.12 Quadratic Equations
    13. 1.13 Cubic Equations
    14. 1.14 Determinants
      1. 1.14.1 The Minor of Determinant
      2. 1.14.2 Properties of Determinants
    15. 1.15 Matrices
      1. 1.15.1 Application of Matrices
      2. 1.15.2 Types of Matrices
      3. 1.15.3 Properties of Matrices
    16. 1.16 Factorial
    17. 1.17 Permutations
    18. 1.18 Combinations
    19. 1.19 Basic Series
    20. 1.20 Exponential Series
    21. 1.21 Sine and Cosine Series
    22. 1.22 Sinh and Cosh Series
    23. 1.23 Hyperbolic Functions
    24. 1.24 Sine, Cosine, Tan and Cot Functions
    25. 1.25 Some Special Functions
      1. 1.25.1 Gamma Function
      2. 1.25.2 Beta Function
      3. 1.25.3 Error Function
      4. 1.25.4 Bessel Function
      5. 1.25.5 Fresnel Integral
      6. 1.25.6 Sine Integral
      7. 1.25.7 Cosine Integral
      8. 1.25.8 Exponential Integral
      9. 1.25.9 Logarithmic Integral
    26. 1.26 Partial Derivative
    27. 1.27 Some Differentiation Formulae
    28. 1.28 Some Useful Integration Formulae
    29. 1.29 Radian and Steradian
    30. 1.30 Integral Theorems
      1. 1.30.1 S’tokes Theorem
      2. 1.30.2 Divergence Theorem
    31. Points to Remember
    32. Solved Problems
    33. Objective Questions
    34. Exerscise Problems
  9. Chapter 2. Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Equation of Continuity for Time-varying Fields
    3. 2.3 Maxwell’s Equations for Time-varying Fields
      1. 2.3.1 Meaning of Maxwell’s Equations
      2. 2.3.2 Conversion of Differential Form of Maxwell’s Equations to Integral Form
      3. 2.3.3 Maxwell’s Equations for Static Fields
      4. 2.3.4 Characteristics of Free Space
      5. 2.3.5 Maxwell’s Equation for Free Space
      6. 2.3.6 Maxwell’s Equations for Static Fields in Free Space
      7. 2.3.7 Proof of Maxwell’s Equations
    4. 2.4 Sinusoidal Time-varying Fields
    5. 2.5 Maxwell’s Equations in Phasor Form
    6. 2.6 Influence of Medium on the Fields
    7. 2.7 Summary of Maxwell’s Equations for Different Cases
    8. 2.8 Conditions at a Boundary Surface
      1. 2.8.1 Proff of Boundary Conditions on E, D, H and B
      2. 2.8.2 Boundary Conditions at a Glance
      3. 2.8.3 Boundary Conditions in Scalar Form
      4. 2.8.4 Boundary Conditions in Vector Form
    9. 2.9 Time-varying Potentials
      1. 2.9.1 Heuristic Approach
      2. 2.9.2 Maxwell’s Equations Approach
    10. 2.10 Electromagnetic Waves
    11. 2.11 Applications of EM Waves
    12. 2.12 Wave Equations in Free Space
    13. 2.13 Wave Equations for a Conducting Medium
    14. 2.14 Uniform Plane Wave Equation
    15. 2.15 General Solution of Uniform Plane Wave Equation
    16. 2.16 Relation Between E and H in a Uniform Plane Wave
    17. 2.17 Wave Equations in Phasor Form
    18. 2.18 Wave Propagation in a Lossless Medium
      1. 2.18.1 The Wave Velocity (υ)
    19. 2.19 Propagation Characteristics of EM Waves in Free Space
    20. 2.20 Propagation Characteristics of EM Wave in a Conducting Medium
      1. 2.20.1 Expressions for a and β in a Conducting Medium
    21. 2.21 Conductors and Dielectrics
    22. 2.22 Wave Propagation Characteristics in Good Dielectrics
    23. 2.22.1 Intrinsic or Characteristic Impedance of a General Medium, η
    24. 2.23 Wave Propagation Characteristics in Good Conductors
    25. 2.24 Depth of Penetration, δ (m)
    26. 2.25 Polarisation of a Wave
      1. 2.25.1 Types of Polarisations
      2. 2.25.2 Sources of Different Polarised EM Waves
    27. 2.26 Direction Cosines of a Vector Field
    28. 2.27 Waves on a Perfect Conductor—Normal Incidence
      1. 2.27.1 Total Fields of a Wave at any Point after Reflection with Normal Incidence on a Perfect Conductor
    29. 2.28 Waves on Dielectric—Normal Incidence
    30. 2.29 Reflection of Wave from a Good Conductor with Oblique Incidence
    31. 2.30 Reflection of a Wave from a Dielectric with Oblique Incidence
    32. 2.31 Brewster Angle
      1. 2.31.1 Total Internal Reflection
    33. 2.32 Poynting Vector and Flow of Power
      1. 2.32.1 Poynting Theorem
    34. 2.33 Complex Poynting Vector
    35. Points to Remember
    36. Solved Problems
    37. Objective Questions
    38. Exercise Problems
  10. Chapter 3. Radiation and Antennas
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Definition of Antenna
    3. 3.3 Functions of Antennas
    4. 3.4 Network Theorems
    5. 3.5 Properties of Antenna
    6. 3.6 Antenna Parameters
    7. 3.7 Basic Antenna Elements
    8. 3.8 Radiation Mechanism
    9. 3.9 Radiation Fields of Alternating Current Element (or Oscillating Electric Dipole)
    10. 3.10 Radiated Power and Radiation Resistance of Current Element
    11. 3.11 Radiation, Induction and Electrostatic Fields
    12. 3.12 Hertzian Dipole
    13. 3.13 Different Current Distributions in Linear Antennas
    14. 3.14 Radiation from Half-wave Dipole
    15. 3.15 Radiation from Quarter-wave Monopole
    16. 3.16 Radiation Characteristics of Dipoles
    17. Points to Remember
    18. Solved Problems
    19. Objective Questions
    20. Exercise Problems
  11. Chapter 4. Analysis of Linear Arrays
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Directional Characteristics of Dipole Antennas
    3. 4.3 Radiation Pattern of Alternating Current Element
    4. 4.4 Radiation Pattern Expressions of Centre-fed Vertical Dipoles of Finite Length
    5. 4.5 Radiation Patterns of Centre-fed Vertical Dipoles
    6. 4.6 Radiation Patterns of Centre-fed Horizontal Dipoles of Finite Length
    7. 4.7 Radiation Patterns of Vertical Monopoles
    8. 4.8 Two-element Uniform Array
    9. 4.9 Uniform Linear Arrays
    10. 4.10 Field Strength of a Uniform Linear Array
    11. 4.11 First Side Lobe Ratio (SLR)
    12. 4.12 Broadside and End-fire Arrays
    13. 4.13 Patterns of Array of Non-isotropic Radiators
    14. 4.14 Multiplication of Patterns
    15. 4.15 Generalised Expression of Principle of Pattern Multiplication
    16. 4.16 Radiation Pattern Characteristics
    17. 4.17 Binomial Arrays
    18. 4.18 Effect of Earth on Vertical Patterns
    19. 4.19 Effect of Earth on Radiation Resistance
    20. 4.20 Methods of Excitation of Antennas
    21. 4.21 Impedance Matching Techniques
    22. 4.22 Transmission Loss between Transmitting and Receiving Antennas (Friis Formula)
    23. 4.23 Antenna Temperature and Signal-to-noise Ratio
    24. Points to Remember
    25. Solved Problems
    26. Objective Questions
    27. Exercise Problems
  12. Chapter 5. Array Synthesis
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Synthesis Methods
    3. 5.3 Schelkunoff Polynomial Method
    4. 5.4 Fourier Transform Method
    5. 5.5 Line Source Design by Fourier Transform Method
    6. 5.6 Design of Linear Array by Fourier Transform Method
    7. 5.7 Linear Array Design by Woodward-Lawson Method
    8. 5.8 Dolph-Chebychev Method (Tschebyscheff Distribution)
    9. 5.9 Determination of Dolph-Chebychev Amplitude Distribution
    10. 5.10 Advantages of Dolph-Tschebyscheff Method
    11. 5.11 Taylor’s Method
    12. 5.12 Laplace Transform Method
    13. 5.13 Standard Amplitude Distributions
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Solved Problems
    16. Objective Questions
    17. Exercise Problems
  13. Chapter 6. HF, VHF and UHF Antennas
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Isotropic Radiators
    3. 6.3 Directional Antennas
    4. 6.4 Omni-directional Antenna
    5. 6.5 Resonant Antennas
    6. 6.6 Non-resonant Antennas (Travelling Wave Antennas)
    7. 6.7 LF Antennas
    8. 6.8 Antennas for HF, VHF, UHF
    9. 6.9 Dipole Arrays
    10. 6.10 Broadside Array
    11. 6.11 End-fire Array
    12. 6.12 Folded Dipole
    13. 6.13 V-Antenna
    14. 6.14 Inverted V-Antenna
    15. 6.15 Rhombic Antenna
    16. 6.16 Yagi-Uda Antenna
    17. 6.17 Log-periodic Antennas
    18. 6.18 Loop Antenna
      1. 6.18.1 Radiation Resistance, Rr of Loop Antenna
    19. 6.19 Helical Antenna
    20. 6.20 Whip Antenna
    21. 6.21 Ferrite Rod Antenna
    22. 6.22 Turnstile Antenna
    23. 6.23 Discone Antenna
    24. 6.24 Notch Antenna
    25. Points to Remember
    26. Solved Problems
    27. Objective Questions
    28. Exercise Problems
  14. Chapter 7. Microwave Antennas
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Rod Reflector
    3. 7.3 Plane Reflector
    4. 7.4 Corner Reflector
    5. 7.5 Parabolic Reflector
    6. 7.6 Types of Parabolic Reflectors
      1. 7.6.1 Cut or Truncated Paraboloid
      2. 7.6.2 Parabolic Cylinder
      3. 7.6.3 Pillbox Antenna
      4. 7.6.4 Offset Paraboliod
      5. 7.6.5 Torus Antenna
    7. 7.7 Feed Systems for Parabolic Reflectors
      1. 7.7.1 Half-Wave Dipole Feed
      2. 7.7.2 Yagi-Uda Antenna Feed
      3. 7.7.3 Array of Collinear Dipoles Feed
      4. 7.7.4 Centre-fed with Spherical Reflector
      5. 7.7.5 Horn Feed
      6. 7.7.6 Cassegrain Feed
    8. 7.8 Shaped Beam Antennas
      1. 7.8.1 Fanned Beams
      2. 7.8.2 Sector Beam
      3. 7.8.3 Cosecant Beams
    9. 7.9 Horn Antenna
    10. 7.10 Corrugated Horns
    11. 7.11 Slot Antenna
    12. 7.12 Impedance of Slot Antenna
    13. 7.13 Impedance of a Few Typical Dipoles
    14. 7.14 Slots in the Walls of Rectangular Waveguide
    15. 7.15 Babinet’s Principle
    16. 7.16 The Method of Moment (MOM)
    17. 7.17 Lens Antenna
    18. 7.17.1 Types of Lens Antennas
    19. 7.18 Equation of the Shape of Lens
    20. 7.19 Microstrip or Patch Antennas
    21. Points to Remember
    22. Solved Problems
    23. Objective Questions
    24. Exercise Problems
  15. Chapter 8. Antenna Measurements
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Drawbacks in Measurements of Antenna Parameters
    3. 8.3 Methods to Overcome Drawbacks in Measurements
    4. 8.4 Some Methods for Accurate Measurements
    5. 8.5 Measurement Ranges
    6. 8.6 Differences between Indoor and Outdoor Ranges
    7. 8.7 Antenna Impedance Measurement
    8. 8.8 Measurement of Antenna Pattern
    9. 8.9 Measurement of Radiation Resistance of an Antenna
    10. 8.10 Gain Measurement by Two Antenna Method
    11. 8.11 Gain Measurement by Three Antenna Method
    12. 8.12 Gain Measurement by Reflection from Ground
    13. 8.13 Directivity Measurement
    14. 8.14 Measurement of Antenna Beam Width
    15. 8.15 Measurement of Side Lobe Ratio (SLR)
    16. 8.16 Measurement of Radiation Efficiency
    17. 8.17 Measurement of Antenna Aperture Efficiency, ηa
    18. 8.18 Measurement of Polarisation of Antenna
    19. 8.19 Phase Measurement
    20. Points to Remember
    21. Objective Questions
  16. Chapter 9. Wave Propagation
    1. 9.1 Propagation Characteristics of EM Wave
    2. 9.2 Factors Involved in the Propagation of Radio Waves
    3. 9.3 Ground Wave
    4. 9.4 Ground Wave Field Strength
    5. 9.5 Ground Wave Field Strength by Maxwell’s Equations
    6. 9.6 Reflection of Radio Waves by the Surface of the Earth
    7. 9.7 Roughness of Earth
    8. 9.8 Reflection Factors of Earth
    9. 9.9 Wave Tilt of the Ground Wave
    10. 9.10 Space Wave or Tropospheric Wave Propagation
    11. 9.11 Field Strength due to Space Wave
    12. 9.12 Considerations in Space Wave Propagation
      1. 9.12.1 Effect of the Curvature of the Earth
      2. 9.12.2 Effect of Earth’s Imperfections and Roughness
      3. 9.12.3 Effects of Hills, Buildings and Other Obstacles
      4. 9.12.4 Effect of the Height above the Earth
      5. 9.12.5 Effect of Transition between Ground Wave and Space Wave
      6. 9.12.6 Effect of Polarisation
    13. 9.13 Atmospheric Effects in Space Wave Propagation
    14. 9.14 Duct Propagation
    15. 9.15 Radio Horizon
    16. 9.16 Troposcatter
    17. 9.17 Fading of EM Waves in Troposphere
    18. 9.18 Line of Sight (LOS)
    19. 9.19 Ionospheric Wave Propagation
    20. 9.20 Characteristics of Ionosphere
    21. 9.21 Refractive Index of Ionosphere
    22. 9.22 Phase and Group Velocities
    23. 9.23 Mechanism of Ionospheric Propagation—Reflection and Refraction
    24. 9.24 Characteristic Parameters of Ionospheric Propagation
    25. 9.25 Sky Wave Field Strength
    26. 9.26 Fading and Diversity Techniques
    27. 9.27 Faraday Rotation
    28. 9.28 Ionospheric Abnormalities
      1. 9.28.1 Normal
      2. 9.28.2 Abnormal
    29. 9.29 Ionospheric Storms
    30. 9.30 Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)
    31. 9.31 Sun Spot Cycle
    32. 9.32 Whistlers
    33. 9.33 Tides and Winds in the Ionosphere
    34. 9.34 Effect of Earth’s Magnetic Field
    35. Points to Remember
    36. Solved Problems
    37. Objective Questions
    38. Exercise Problems
  17. Multiple Choice Questions
  18. Bibliography
  19. Acknowledgements
  20. Copyright