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Animation from Pencils to Pixels

Book Description

Just add talent!

Award-winning animator Tony White brings you the ultimate book for digital animation. Here you will find the classic knowledge of many legendary techniques revealed, paired with information relevant to today's capable, state-of-the-art technologies.

White leaves nothing out. What contemporary digital animators most need to know can be found between this book's covers - from conceptions to creation and through the many stages of the production pipeline to distribution. This book is intended to serve as your one-stop how-to animation guide. Whether you're new to animation or a very experienced digital animator, here you'll find fundamentals, key classical techniques, and professional advice that will strengthen your work and well-roundedness as an animator.

Speaking from experience, White presents time-honored secrets of professional animaton with a warm, masterly, and knowledgeable approach that has evolved from over 30 years as an award-winning animator/director.

The book's enclosed CD-Rom presents classic moments from animation's history through White's personal homage to traditional drawn animation, "Endangered Species." Using movie clips and still images from the film, White shares the 'making of' journal of the film, detailing each step, with scene-by-scene descriptions, technique by technique. Look for the repetitive stress disorder guide on the CD-Rom, called, "Mega-hurts." Watch the many movie clips for insights into the versatility that a traditional, pencil-drawn approach to animaton can offer.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Foreword
  9. Introduction
  10. 1 Development
    1. Idea Creation
      1. Intellectual Property and Copyrights
        1. Purchasing or Optioning the Rights
        2. Public Domain Material
        3. Protecting Your Own Ideas
        4. Proof of Ownership
        5. Confidentiality Agreements
        6. Works Created for Your Employer
      2. “Endangered Species”
    2. Evolving a Storyline
      1. The Hero’s Journey: Story Structure
      2. Summarizing the Storyline
      3. “Endangered Species”
    3. Scriptwriting
      1. “Endangered Species”
  11. 2 Character Design
    1. The Evolution of 2D Character Design
    2. The Evolution of 3D Character Design
    3. Animation Style
      1. Guidelines for Character Design
        1. Shape and Proportion
        2. Head Heights
        3. Model Sheets
        4. Color Models
        5. Foreground/Background Compatibility
      2. “Endangered Species”
    4. Concept and Environment Design
      1. “Endangered Species”
  12. 3 Project Financing
    1. Animation Markets
      1. Movies
      2. Television
        1. Television Series and Specials
        2. Television Advertising
      3. Games
      4. The Web
      5. Direct-to-Markets
      6. “Endangered Species”
    2. Scheduling and Budgeting
      1. Figuring the Cash Flow
      2. Contingency Planning
    3. Investment, Marketing, and Distribution Possibilities
      1. Pre-Sale Distribution Outlets
      2. “Endangered Species”
      3. The Realities of Securing Production Finance
      4. Advice on Sales Agents
      5. Legal Advice
      6. Presentation Packages
        1. Logline
        2. Storyline Synopsis
        3. First-Draft Script
        4. Key Character Designs and Concept Art
        5. Sample Sequence Storyboard
        6. Animated Taster
        7. Development Budget
        8. Evidence of Ownership of Rights and Intellectual Property
        9. Key Personnel
        10. Project Web site
      7. Presentation of the Presentation Package
    4. Short and Independent Film Developing
      1. Presentation Packages
        1. Story Synopsis
        2. Series Bible, First-Draft Script, or “Game Plan”
        3. Key Character Designs and Concept Art
        4. A Sample Sequence Storyboard
        5. Animated “Taster” or Filmmaker’s Showreel
        6. Project Budget and Schedule
        7. Evidence of Ownership of Rights and Intellectual Property
        8. Key Personnel
      2. “Endangered Species”
  13. 4 Rules of Filmmaking
    1. Camera Positions
      1. Ultra-Wide Shot
      2. Wide Shot
      3. Mid Shot
      4. Close-Up
      5. Extreme Close-Up
      6. Combining Camera Positions in a Scene
    2. Camera Lenses
      1. Standard Lens (50–100mm Focal Length)
      2. Wide-Angle Lens (20–35mm)
      3. Long Lens (85–600mm)
      4. Zoom Lens (28–80mm; 18–35mm; 70–300mm)
      5. Fisheye Lens (6–16mm)
    3. Lighting and Filters
    4. Camera Moves
      1. Fixed (Locked Down) Shot
      2. Tracking (Panning) Shot
      3. Zoom Shot
      4. Dolly (Crane) Shot
    5. Staging
      1. The Rule of the Line
      2. Shooting Down the Line
      3. Getting Around the Line
        1. The Cut-Away Shot
        2. Moving the Camera
        3. Moving the Actors
      4. Two Shot, Profile
      5. Two Shot, Three-Quarter
      6. One Shot, Three-Quarter Front
      7. One Shot, Three-Quarter Front Close-Up
      8. Eyeline
      9. Three or More Character Shots
      10. “Endangered Species”
    6. Scene-to-Scene Transitions
      1. The Cut
      2. The Dissolve
      3. The Fade
      4. The Wipe
      5. The Ripple and Other Special Effects Dissolves
      6. “Endangered Species”
    7. Screen Aspect Ratios
      1. “Endangered Species”
  14. 5 Soundtrack Recording and Editing
    1. Talent Selection
      1. Voice Recording
        1. Recording for Animation
        2. Recording and Cataloging Dialogue
      2. Non-Voice Recording
      3. Music Track Recording
      4. Final Working Track
        1. The Track Breakdown
        2. Film Speeds and Conversion Ratios
      5. “Endangered Species”
  15. 6 Storyboarding and Animatics
    1. Storyboards
      1. Storyboard Formats
      2. Creating the Storyboard
      3. Tips for Storyboarding
        1. Reusing Drawings
        2. Panning Sequences
        3. Numbering Frames
        4. Finish the Storyboard
      4. “Endangered Species”
    2. The Animatic (or Leica Reel)
      1. Creating the Animatic
      2. “Endangered Species”
  16. 7 Digital Desktop Production
    1. Stages of Animation Production
      1. Animation (2D and 3D)
      2. Backgrounds (2D)
      3. Environments (3D)
      4. Special Effects (2D and 3D)
      5. Checking (2D)
      6. Scanning (2D)
      7. Coloring (2D)
      8. Compositing (2D and 3D)
      9. Editing (2D and 3D)
      10. Final Dub (2D and 3D)
      11. Digital to Film Transfer (2D and 3D)
    2. Production Team and Workflow
      1. Director (2D and 3D)
      2. Producer (2D and 3D)
      3. Production Manager (2D and 3D)
      4. Character Modeler (3D)
      5. Production Designer (2D and 3D)
      6. Animator (2D and 3D)
      7. Assistant Animator (2D)
      8. Inbetweener (2D)
      9. Clean-Up Artist (2D)
      10. Environmental Modeler (3D)
      11. Background Artist (2D)
      12. Checker (2D)
      13. Scanner/Rostrum Cameraman (2D)
      14. Inker (2D)
      15. Colorist (2D)
      16. Texturer (3D)
      17. Lighting Artist (3D)
      18. Compositor (2D and 3D)
      19. Sound Editor (2D/3D)
    3. Project Management
      1. Progress Charts
      2. Route Sheets
      3. “Endangered Species”
  17. 8 Principles of Animation
    1. Key Poses, Breakdowns, and Inbetweens
    2. Timing
      1. Charts
      2. Slowing-In and Slowing-Out
    3. Extreme Positions
    4. Arcs and Paths of Action
    5. Holds
    6. Emphasis
    7. Anticipation
    8. Weight and Weighted Movement
    9. Flexibility and Fluid Joint Movement
    10. Overlapping Action
    11. Generic Walks
      1. Keys
      2. Passing Position
      3. Inbetweens
    12. Walk Cycles
      1. Personality Walks and Timing
    13. Runs and Run Cycles
      1. Personality Runs and Timing
    14. Silhouetting
    15. Dialogue and Lip Sync
    16. Laughter
    17. Takes
      1. Eyes and Expressions
  18. 9 Animating Step by Step
    1. Key Poses
      1. Attitude and Dynamics
      2. Inbetweens
      3. Adding Mouths
      4. Staging and Camera Angles
      5. Working with Characters
        1. Extreme Action
      6. Clean-Up
      7. “Endangered Species”
    2. Drawing for Animators
      1. Drawing Terminology
        1. Point of View (POV)
        2. Horizon
        3. Perspective
        4. Vanishing Point
        5. Foreshortening
        6. Plane
      2. Drawing upon Life
  19. 10 2D Animation Overview
    1. It’s All about Pencils and Paper
      1. Script
      2. Storyboard
      3. Soundtrack
      4. Track Breakdown
      5. Designs
      6. Animatic (Leica Reel)
      7. Layouts
      8. Dope Sheets and Production Folders
      9. Pencil Tests
      10. Pose Tests
      11. Clean-Up
      12. Ink and Paint
      13. Backgrounds
      14. Checking
      15. Final Shoot/Composite
      16. Final Edit and Dub
    2. The Tools of the Trade
      1. Lightbox
      2. Peg Holes and Peg Bars
      3. Field Sizes
        1. Field Guides
        2. Field Size Limitations
        3. Overlarge Field Sizes
      4. TV Cut-Off and Safe Titling
        1. TV Cut-Off
        2. Safe Titling
      5. “Endangered Species”
  20. 11 2D Animation Basics
    1. Keys, Inbetweens, and Timing
      1. Charts and Inbetween Counting
      2. Straight-Ahead Animation
      3. Slowing-In and Slowing-Out
      4. Working in Thirds
      5. How to Inbetween
      6. Paths of Action
      7. Superimpositions
        1. Multiple Superimpositions
    2. Dope (Exposure) Sheets and Production Folders
      1. The Dope Sheet
        1. Frame Lines
        2. Animator’s Notes
        3. Audio Breakdown
        4. Animation Layers
        5. Shooting or Camera Instructions
        6. Rules for Dope Sheets
      2. The Production Folder
        1. Special Instructions
        2. Material Used From Other Scenes
        3. Material Used in Other Scenes
        4. Attached Dope Sheet
    3. Flipping and Peg Bars
      1. Using Peg Bars
      2. Top Pegs vs. Bottom Pegs
        1. Bottom Pegs Flipping
        2. Top Pegs Flipping
      3. Whole Scene Flipping
  21. 12 Finessing 2D Animation
    1. Tracebacks
    2. Eccentric Movement and Staggers
      1. Takes
      2. Squash
      3. Stretch
      4. Staggers
    3. Panning and Camera Moves
      1. Panning and Tracking
      2. Side Peg Pans
      3. Curved or Arced Pans
      4. Repeat Pans
      5. Panning Charts
      6. Zip Pans
      7. Camera Shake
    4. Pan Speed and Strobing Problems
    5. Shadows and Effects
      1. Rotoscoping
  22. 13 2D Vector Animation
    1. The Value of Limited Animation
    2. The Basic Approach
      1. Writing for the Web
      2. Storyboarding for the Web
      3. Web Characters
      4. Soundtracks
      5. The Animatic
    3. Vector Film Production
      1. Animation
      2. Design
      3. Backgrounds
      4. Inbetweening
      5. Lip Sync
      6. Fine Tuning
    4. Being Resourceful
    5. Non-Web Vector Animation
      1. Games Production
  23. 14 The Paperless Animation Studio
    1. When the Animator Is Ready, the Software Will Come
    2. The Technology
      1. Mirage
      2. Cintiq
    3. The Importance of Drawing
    4. 2D or not 2D?
  24. 15 3D Overview
    1. The Importance of Drawing
    2. Cartesian Space
    3. Character Design
      1. Polygons
      2. Primitives
    4. Character Modeling
      1. Modeling to Suit Story Requirements
      2. Rigging and Weighting
        1. Forward and Inverse Kinematics
        2. Creating the Bone Hierarchy
        3. Adding Control Points
        4. Manipulators and Nulls
        5. Weighting
    5. Lighting and Texturing
    6. Environmental Modeling
      1. “Endangered Species”
  25. 16 Creating 3D Movement
    1. Blocking Out
    2. Key Poses
    3. Inbetweens
    4. Fine Tuning
    5. Timing, Timelines, and F-Curves
    6. Constant Testing
    7. Traditional Principles of Movement
    8. The Value of Caricature vs. Motion Capture
    9. Sliders and Lip Sync
    10. “Endangered Species”
      1. Scene 70
        1. v-01: Blocking In
        2. v-02: Add the Ups on Each Passing Position
        3. v-03: Foot Adjusts
        4. v-04: Increased Up on Passing Position
        5. v-05: Foot Tidy Up
        6. v-06: Side-to-Side Sway
        7. v-07: Rotation on Body
        8. v-08: Blocked-In Arm Action
        9. v-09: Left Arm Bend
        10. v-10: Increased Body Action and Start Head Turn
        11. v-11: Right Arm to Match Left
        12. v-12: Lighting Adjust and Final Render
      2. Scene 71
        1. v-01: Blocking Out Positions
        2. v-02: Right Arm Blocking Out
        3. v-03: Body Adjust
        4. v-04: Left Arm Blocking Adjustments
        5. v-05: Body Adjust
        6. v-06: Right Forearm Adjust
        7. v-07: Left Forearm Adjust
        8. v-08: Hands Adjust
        9. v-09: Right Hand Fine Tune
        10. v-10: Left Hand Fine Tune
        11. v-11: Left Fingers Fine Tune
        12. v-12: Right Fingers Fine Tune
        13. v-13: Left Hand Adjust
        14. v-14: Balance Hand Actions
        15. v-15: Lighting Adjust and Final Render
      3. In Conclusion
  26. A Oh, I Almost Forgot …
    1. Job-Hunting Advice
    2. Showcasing Your Work
      1. Drawing Portfolio
      2. Showreel
      3. Web Site
    3. Finding the Jobs
      1. Networking
      2. Recruitment Officers
    4. The Right Stuff
    5. The Value of Experience
    6. The Value of Familiarity
      1. Words of Encouragement
  27. B Glossary
  28. Index