**Appendix A Some common probability distributions**

In this appendix, we define the probability distributions used in the book. We do not provide any detailed properties of these distributions here. Such details may be obtained from any of several standard references, e.g. Papoulis (1991).

**A.1 Discrete distributions**

#### A.1.1 Uniform distribution

This is what we mean when we talk of “randomly” selecting one object from a set of size *n*. If we label the objects in this set from 1 to *n* and let *X* denote the random variable representing the label of the selected object, the selection of an object “at random” corresponds to choosing a label with the following distribution:

#### A.1.2 Bernoulli distribution

A random variable *X* that takes only one of the values ...