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Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Fourth Edition

Book Description

The leading integrated chemical process design guide: Now with extensive new coverage and more process designs

More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Fourth Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates both the big picture and the small details–and knows which to stress when, and why. Realistic from start to finish, this updated edition moves readers beyond classroom exercises into open-ended, real-world process problem solving. The authors introduce integrated techniques for every facet of the discipline, from finance to operations, new plant design to existing process optimization.

This fourth edition adds new chapters introducing dynamic process simulation; advanced concepts in steady-state simulation; extensive coverage of thermodynamics packages for modeling processes containing electrolyte solutions and solids; and a concise introduction to logic control. “What You Have Learned” summaries have been added to each chapter, and the text’s organization has been refined for greater clarity.

Coverage Includes

  • Conceptualization and analysis: flow diagrams, batch processing, tracing, process conditions, and product design strategies

  • Economic analysis: capital and manufacturing costs, financial calculations, and profitability analysis

  • Synthesis and optimization: principles, PFD synthesis, simulation techniques, top-down and bottom-up optimization, pinch technology, and software-based control

  • Advanced steady-state simulation: goals, models, solution strategies, and sensitivity and optimization studies

  • Dynamic simulation: goals, development, solution methods, algorithms, and solvers

  • Performance analysis: I/O models, tools, performance curves, reactor performance, troubleshooting, and “debottlenecking”

  • Societal impact: ethics, professionalism, health, safety, environmental issues, and green engineering

  • Interpersonal and communication skills: improving teamwork and group effectiveness

  • This title draws on more than fifty years of innovative chemical engineering instruction at West Virginia University and the University of Nevada, Reno. It includes suggested curricula for single-semester and year-long design courses, case studies and practical design projects, current equipment cost data, and extensive preliminary design information that can be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses.

    Table of Contents

    1. Title Page
    2. Copyright Page
    3. Contents
    4. Material on the CD-ROM
    5. Preface
    6. About the Authors
    7. List of Nomenclature
    8. Section I. Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes
      1. Chapter 1. Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes
        1. 1.1. Block Flow Diagram (BFD)
        2. 1.2. Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
        3. 1.3. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
        4. 1.4. Additional Diagrams
        5. 1.5. Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process
        6. 1.6. The 3-D Plant Model
        7. 1.7. Operator and 3-D Immersive Training Simulators
        8. 1.8. Summary
        9. References
        10. Short Answer Questions
        11. Problems
      2. Chapter 2. The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams
        1. 2.1. Hierarchy of Process Design
        2. 2.2. Step 1—Batch Versus Continuous Process
        3. 2.3. Step 2—The Input/Output Structure of the Process
        4. 2.4. Step 3—The Recycle Structure of the Process
        5. 2.5. Step 4—General Structure of the Separation System
        6. 2.6. Step 5—Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System
        7. 2.7. Information Required and Sources
        8. 2.8. Summary
        9. References
        10. Short Answer Questions
        11. Problems
      3. Chapter 3. Batch Processing
        1. 3.1. Design Calculations for Batch Processes
        2. 3.2. Gantt Charts and Scheduling
        3. 3.3. Nonoverlapping Operations, Overlapping Operations, and Cycle Times
        4. 3.4. Flowshop and Jobshop Plants
        5. 3.5. Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel Process Units
        6. 3.6. Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch Processes
        7. 3.7. Summary
        8. References
        9. Short Answer Questions
        10. Problems
      4. Chapter 4. Chemical Product Design
        1. 4.1. Strategies for Chemical Product Design
        2. 4.2. Needs
        3. 4.3. Ideas
        4. 4.4. Selection
        5. 4.5. Manufacture
        6. 4.6. Batch Processing
        7. 4.7. Economic Considerations
        8. 4.8. Summary
        9. References
      5. Chapter 5. Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram
        1. 5.1. Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals
        2. 5.2. Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process
        3. 5.3. Recycle and Bypass Streams
        4. 5.4. Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals
        5. 5.5. Limitations
        6. 5.6. Written Process Description
        7. 5.7. Summary
        8. Problems
      6. Chapter 6. Understanding Process Conditions
        1. 6.1. Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems
        2. 6.2. Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern
        3. 6.3. Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment
        4. 6.4. Analysis of Important Process Conditions
        5. 6.5. Summary
        6. References
        7. Short Answer Questions
        8. Problems
    9. Section II. Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes
      1. Chapter 7. Estimation of Capital Costs
        1. 7.1. Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates
        2. 7.2. Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs
        3. 7.3. Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant
        4. 7.4. Summary
        5. References
        6. Short Answer Questions
        7. Problems
      2. Chapter 8. Estimation of Manufacturing Costs
        1. 8.1. Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product
        2. 8.2. Cost of Operating Labor
        3. 8.3. Utility Costs
        4. 8.4. Raw Material Costs
        5. 8.5. Yearly Costs and Stream Factors
        6. 8.6. Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD
        7. 8.7. Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams
        8. 8.8. Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene Via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene
        9. 8.9. Summary
        10. References
        11. Short Answer Questions
        12. Problems
      3. Chapter 9. Engineering Economic Analysis
        1. 9.1. Investments and the Time Value of Money
        2. 9.2. Different Types of Interest
        3. 9.3. Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations
        4. 9.4. Cash Flow Diagrams
        5. 9.5. Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams
        6. 9.6. Inflation
        7. 9.7. Depreciation of Capital Investment
        8. 9.8. Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit
        9. 9.9. Summary
        10. References
        11. Short Answer Questions
        12. Problems
      4. Chapter 10. Profitability Analysis
        1. 10.1. A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project
        2. 10.2. Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation
        3. 10.3. Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental Economic Analysis
        4. 10.4. Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments: The Concept of Risk
        5. 10.5. Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives
        6. 10.6. Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities
        7. 10.7. Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability
        8. 10.8. Profit Margin Analysis
        9. 10.9. Summary
        10. References
        11. Short Answer Questions
        12. Problems
    10. Section III. Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes
      1. Chapter 11. Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design
        1. 11.1. The Role of Experience in the Design Process
        2. 11.2. Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines
        3. 11.3. Summary
        4. References
        5. Problems
      2. Chapter 12. Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD
        1. 12.1. Information Needs and Sources
        2. 12.2. Reactor Section
        3. 12.3. Separator Section
        4. 12.4. Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections
        5. 12.5. Recycle Section
        6. 12.6. Environmental Control Section
        7. 12.7. Major Process Control Loops
        8. 12.8. Flow Summary Table
        9. 12.9. Major Equipment Summary Table
        10. 12.10. Summary
        11. References
        12. General Reference
        13. Problems
      3. Chapter 13. Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting
        1. 13.1. The Structure of a Process Simulator
        2. 13.2. Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation: Input Data
        3. 13.3. Handling Recycle Streams
        4. 13.4. Choosing Thermodynamic Models
        5. 13.5. Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process
        6. 13.6. Electrolyte Systems Modeling
        7. 13.7. Solids Modeling
        8. Appendix 13.1. Calculation of Excess Gibbs Energy for Electrolyte Systems
        9. Appendix 13.2. Steps to Build a Model of a Distillation Column for an Electrolyte System Using a Rate-Based Simulation with a Film Model for Mass Transfer, the Parameters Required at Each Stage, and Possible Sources of These Parameters
        10. 13.8. Summary
        11. References
        12. Short Answer Questions
        13. Problems
      4. Chapter 14. Process Optimization
        1. 14.1. Background Information on Optimization
        2. 14.2. Strategies
        3. 14.3. Topological Optimization
        4. 14.4. Parametric Optimization
        5. 14.5. Lattice Search Techniques versus Response Surface Techniques
        6. 14.6. Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum
        7. 14.7. Optimization in Batch Systems
        8. 14.8. Summary
        9. References
        10. Short Answer Questions
        11. Problems
      5. Chapter 15. Pinch Technology
        1. 15.1. Introduction
        2. 15.2. Heat Integration and Network Design
        3. 15.3. Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram
        4. 15.4. Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch
        5. 15.5. Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area
        6. 15.6. Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells
        7. 15.7. Combining Costs to Give the Eaoc for the Network
        8. 15.8. Other Considerations
        9. 15.9. Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program
        10. 15.10. Mass-Exchange Networks
        11. 15.11. Summary
        12. References
        13. Short Answer Questions
        14. Problems
      6. Chapter 16. Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators
        1. 16.1. Why the Need for Advanced Topics in Steady-State Simulation?
        2. 16.2. User-Added Models
        3. 16.3. Solution Strategy for Steady-State Simulations
        4. 16.4. Studies with the Steady-State Simulation
        5. 16.5. Estimation of Physical Property Parameters
        6. 16.6. Summary
        7. References
        8. Short Answer Questions
        9. Problems
      7. Chapter 17. Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design
        1. 17.1. Why is there a Need for Dynamic Simulation?
        2. 17.2. Setting Up a Dynamic Simulation
        3. 17.3. Dynamic Simulation Solution Methods
        4. 17.4. Process Control
        5. 17.5. Summary
        6. References
        7. Short Answer Questions
        8. Problems
      8. Chapter 18. Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software
        1. 18.1. A Simple Regulation Problem
        2. 18.2. The Characteristics of Regulating Valves
        3. 18.3. Regulating Flowrates and Pressures
        4. 18.4. The Measurement of Process Variables
        5. 18.5. Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes
        6. 18.6. Exchanging Heat and Work Between Process and Utility Streams
        7. 18.7. Logic Control
        8. 18.8. Advanced Process Control
        9. 18.9. Case Studies
        10. 18.10. Putting it all Together: The Operator Training Simulator (OTS)
        11. 18.11. Summary
        12. References
        13. Problems
    11. Section IV. Analysis of Process Performance
      1. Chapter 19. Process Input/Output Models
        1. 19.1. Representation of Process Inputs and Outputs
        2. 19.2. Analysis of the Effect of Process Inputs on Process Outputs
        3. 19.3. A Process Example
        4. 19.4. Summary
        5. Problems
      2. Chapter 20. Tools for Evaluating Process Performance
        1. 20.1. Key Relationships
        2. 20.2. Thinking with Equations
        3. 20.3. Base-Case Ratios
        4. 20.4. Analysis of Systems Using Controlling Resistances
        5. 20.5. Graphical Representations
        6. 20.6. Summary
        7. Reference
        8. Problems
      3. Chapter 21. Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations
        1. 21.1. Application to Heat Transfer
        2. 21.2. Application to Fluid Flow
        3. 21.3. Application to Separation Problems
        4. 21.4. Summary
        5. Reference
        6. Short Answer Questions
        7. Problems
      4. Chapter 22. Performance of Multiple Unit Operations
        1. 22.1. Analysis of a Reactor with Heat Transfer
        2. 22.2. Performance of a Distillation Column
        3. 22.3. Performance of a Heating Loop
        4. 22.4. Performance of the Feed Section to a Process
        5. 22.5. Summary
        6. References
        7. Short Answer Questions
        8. Problems
      5. Chapter 23. Reactor Performance
        1. 23.1. Production of Desired Product
        2. 23.2. Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics
        3. 23.3. The Chemical Reactor
        4. 23.4. Heat Transfer in the Chemical Reactor
        5. 23.5. Reactor System Case Studies
        6. 23.6. Summary
        7. References
        8. Short Answer Questions
        9. Problems
      6. Chapter 24. Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking
        1. 24.1. Recommended Methodology
        2. 24.2. Troubleshooting Individual Units
        3. 24.3. Troubleshooting Multiple Units
        4. 24.4. A Process Troubleshooting Problem
        5. 24.5. Debottlenecking Problems
        6. 24.6. Summary
        7. References
        8. Problems
    12. Section V. The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society
      1. Chapter 25. Ethics and Professionalism
        1. 25.1. Ethics
        2. 25.2. Professional Registration
        3. 25.3. Legal Liability [13]
        4. 25.4. Business Codes of Conduct [14, 15]
        5. 25.5. Summary
        6. References
        7. Problems
      2. Chapter 26. Health, Safety, and the Environment
        1. 26.1. Risk Assessment
        2. 26.2. Regulations and Agencies
        3. 26.3. Fires and Explosions
        4. 26.4. Process Hazard Analysis
        5. 26.5. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board
        6. 26.6. Inherently Safe Design
        7. 26.7. Summary
        8. 26.8. Glossary
        9. References
        10. Problems
      3. Chapter 27. Green Engineering
        1. 27.1. Environmental Regulations
        2. 27.2. Environmental Fate of Chemicals
        3. 27.3. Green Chemistry
        4. 27.4. Pollution Prevention During Process Design
        5. 27.5. Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance
        6. 27.6. An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention
        7. 27.7. Life Cycle Analysis
        8. 27.8. Summary
        9. References
        10. Problems
    13. Section VI. Interpersonal and Communication Skills
      1. Chapter 28. Teamwork
        1. 28.1. Groups
        2. 28.2. Group Evolution
        3. 28.3. Teams and Teamwork
        4. 28.4. Misconceptions
        5. 28.5. Learning in Teams
        6. 28.6. Other Reading
        7. 28.7. Summary
        8. References
        9. Problems
    14. Appendix A. Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program
      1. A.1. Purchased Equipment Costs
      2. A.2. Pressure Factors
      3. A.3. Material Factors And Bare Module Factors
      4. References
    15. Index
    16. Chapter 0. Outcomes Assessment
      1. 0.1. Student Self-Assessment
      2. 0.2. Assessment by Faculty
      3. 0.3. Summary
      4. References
      5. Other References
    17. Chapter 29. Written and Oral Communication
      1. 29.1. Audience Analysis
      2. 29.2. Written Communication
      3. 29.3. Oral Communication
      4. 29.4. Software and Author Responsibility
      5. 29.5. Summary
      6. References
      7. Problems
    18. Chapter 30. A Report-Writing Case Study
      1. 30.1. The Assignment Memorandum
      2. 30.2. Response Memorandum
      3. 30.3. Visual Aids
      4. 30.4. Example Reports
      5. 30.5. Checklist of Common Mistakes and Errors
    19. Appendix B. Information for the Preliminary Design of Fifteen Chemical Processes
      1. B.1. Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production, Unit 200
      2. B.2. Ethylbenzene Production, Unit 300
      3. B.3. Styrene Production, Unit 400
      4. B.4. Drying Oil Production, Unit 500
      5. B.5. Production Of Maleic Anhydride From Benzene, Unit 600
      6. B.6. Ethylene Oxide Production, Unit 700
      7. B.7. Formalin Production, Unit 800
      8. B.8. Batch Production Of L-Phenylalanine And L-Aspartic Acid, Unit 900
      9. B.9. Acrylic Acid Production Via The Catalytic Partial Oxidation Of Propylene [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], Unit 1000
      10. B.10. Production Of Acetone Via The Dehydrogenation Of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) [1, 2, 3, 4], Unit 1100
      11. B.11. Production Of Heptenes From Propylene And Butenes [1], Unit 1200
      12. B.12. Design of a Shift Reactor Unit to Convert Co To Co2, Unit 1300
      13. B.13. Design of a Dual-Stage Selexol Unit to Remove CO2 And H2S From Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas, Unit 1400
      14. B.14. Design of a Claus Unit For the Conversion of H2s to Elemental Sulfur, Unit 1500
      15. B.15. Modeling a Downward-Flow, Oxygen-Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier, Unit 1600
    20. Appendix C. Design Projects
      1. Project 1. Increasing the Production of 3-Chloro-1-Propene (Allyl Chloride) in Unit 600
      2. PROJECT 2. Design and Optimization of a New 20,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Facility to Produce Allyl Chloride at La Nueva Cantina, Mexico
      3. PROJECT 3. Scale-Down of Phthalic Anhydride Production at TBWS Unit 700
      4. PROJECT 4. The Design of a New 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Phthalic Anhydride Production Facility
      5. PROJECT 5. Problems at the Cumene Production Facility, Unit 800
      6. PROJECT 6. Design of a New, 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Cumene Production Facility
    21. Where are the Companion Content Files?