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Analysis of Variance Designs by A. J. Guarino, Lawrence S. Meyers, Glenn Gamst

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Chapter Five ANOVA Assumptions

5.1 Overview

Before conducting an analysis of variance (ANOVA), researchers need to consider three fundamental statistical assumptions that underlie the analysis: (a) the error components associated with the scores of the dependent variable are independent of one another, (b) these errors are normally distributed, and (c) the variances across the levels or groups of the independent variable are equal. Although we discuss these assumptions separately, in practice they are interconnected; a violation of one assumption may and often does affect the others.

A fairly comprehensive literature on the assumptions underlying ANOVA has developed over the past six decades or so. Good general summaries of this work can be found ...

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