I am not bound to please thee with my answer (William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, 1596–1598).
It is not always possible to measure the quantities of interest directly. In psychology, intelligence is a prime example; scores in mathematics, language and literature, or comprehensive tests are used to describe a person’s intelligence. From these measurements, a psychologist may want to derive a person’s intelligence. Behavioural scientist Charles Spearman is credited with being the originator and pioneer of the classical theory of mental tests, the theory of intelligence and what is now called Factor Analysis. In 1904, Spearman proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence which he extended over a number ...