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Analog Electronics with LabVIEW®

Book Description

The hands-on, simulation-based introduction to analog electronics.

Analog Electronics with LabVIEW is the first comprehensive introduction to analog electronics that makes full use of computer simulation. Kenneth L. Ashley introduces analog electronics through a series of theory/project sections, in which theoretical presentations correlate directly with circuit measurement and analysis projects. The results of experiments are used to extract device model parameters used in subsequent electronic circuit analysis, providing a significant enhancement in the understanding of modern, computer-based electronic-circuit simulation. Readers will master not only the fundamentals of analog electronics, but also data acquisition and circuit simulation with LabVIEW, basic circuit-solution computation with Mathcad, and circuit simulation with Cadence Schematics or Capture. Coverage includes:

  • Elementary analog circuit analysis, including the resistor voltage divider and MOSFET DC gate voltage, MOSFET drain current-source equivalent, amplifier frequency response, and more

  • Fundamentals of transistors and voltage amplification

  • Characterization of MOS transistors for circuit simulation

  • Common-source amplifiers, MOSFET source-follower buffer stage, differential amplifier stage, and MOSFET current sources

  • Operational amplifiers: resistor negative feedback approaches and capacitor-based applications

  • Development of a Basic CMOS Operational Amplifier

  • LabVIEW tutorial with emphasis on analog electronics, the discrete nature of compute data acquisition, and LabVIEW measurement VIs such as the autoranging DC voltmeter

  • Characterization of the BJT for circuit simulation including linear modeling

  • BJT NPN common-emitter amplifier, including emitter degeneration and current-source PNP load with emitter degeneration

  • For those new to LabVIEW, the book also contains a complete introductory tutorial with emphasis relevant to analog-electronics applications.

    CD-ROM INCLUDED

    The accompanying CD-ROM includes a complete copy of LabVIEW 6 Student Edition Software, along with all the LabVIEW, Mathcad, and Schematics (or Capture) files you need to perform the experiments and exercises in this book, plus samples of all project measurement and data files for measurement simulation.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. National Improvements | Virtual Instrumentation Series
    3. Preface
    4. References
    5. Hardware and Software Requirements
    6. LabVIEW VI Libraries and Project and Problem Folders and Files
    7. Elementary Circuit Analysis for Analog Electronics
      1. Resistor Voltage Divider and MOSFET DC Gate Voltage
      2. Output Circuit and DC Drain Voltage
      3. Frequency Response of the Amplifier Stage
      4. Summary of Equations
      5. Exercises and Projects
    8. Transistors and Voltage Amplification
      1. BJT and MOSFET Schematic Symbols, Terminal Voltages, and Branch Currents
      2. Fundamentals of Signal Amplification: The Linear Circuit
      3. Basic NMOS Common-Source Amplifier
      4. Transistor Output Resistance and Limiting Gain
      5. Summary of Equations
      6. Exercises and Projects
      7. References to the Electronics Book Sequence
    9. Characterization of MOS Transistors for Circuit Simulation
      1. Physical Description of the MOSFET
      2. Output and Transfer Characteristics of the MOSFET
      3. Body Effect and Threshold Voltage
      4. Derivation of the Linear-Region Current – Voltage Relation
      5. Summary of Equations
      6. Exercises and Projects
    10. Signal Conductance Parameters for Circuit Simulation
      1. Amplifier Circuit and Signal Equivalent Circuits
      2. Transistor Variable Incremental Relationships
      3. Transconductance Parameter
      4. Body-Effect Transconductance Parameter
      5. Output Conductance Parameter
      6. Graphical Perspective of Output Characteristics and the Load Line
      7. Summary of Equations
    11. Common-Source Amplifier Stage
      1. DC (Bias) Circuit
      2. Amplifier Voltage Gain
      3. Linearity of the Gain of the Common-Source Amplifier
      4. Current-Source Common-Source Amplifier: Common-Source Amplifier with a Source Resistor
      5. Design of a Basic Common-Source Amplifier
      6. Summary of Equations
      7. Exercises and Projects
    12. Coupling and Bypass Capacitors and Frequency Response
      1. Grounded-Source Amplifier: Coupling Capacitor
      2. Current-Source Bias Amplifier: Bypass Capacitor
      3. Precision Formulation of the Low-Frequency Gain and Characteristic Frequencies
      4. Load Coupling Capacitor
      5. Summary of Equations
      6. Exercises and Projects
    13. MOSFET Source-Follower Buffer Stage
      1. DC (Bias) Circuit
      2. Source-Follower Voltage Transfer Relation
      3. Body Effect and Source-Follower Voltage Transfer Relation
      4. Summary of Equations
      5. Exercises and Projects
    14. MOSFET Differential Amplifier Stage
      1. DC (Bias) Circuit
      2. DC Imbalances
      3. Signal Voltage Gain of the Ideal Differential Amplifier Stage
      4. Effect of the Bias Resistor on Voltage Gain
      5. Differential Voltage Gain
      6. Common-Mode Voltage Gain
      7. Voltage Gains Including Transistor Output Resistance
      8. Body Effect and Voltage Gain
      9. Amplifier Gain with Differential and Common-Mode Inputs
      10. Comparison of Numerical Gain Results
      11. Summary of Equations
      12. Exercises and Projects
    15. MOSFET Current Sources
      1. Basic Current Source
      2. Current Source with Source Degeneration
      3. Differential Amplifier Balancing Circuit
      4. Summary of Equations
    16. Common-Source Amplifier with Current-Source Load
      1. DC (Bias) Circuit
      2. Signal Voltage Gain
      3. Summary of Equations
      4. Exercises and Projects
    17. Operational Amplifiers with Resistor Negative Feedback
      1. Operational Amplifiers with Resistance Feedback
      2. Output Resistance of the Resistor Feedback Amplifier
      3. Operational Amplifier Offset
      4. DC Stabilization with the Feedback Resistor
      5. Frequency Response of the Operational Amplifier and Resistor Feedback Amplifier
      6. Summary of Equations
      7. Exercises and Projects
    18. Operational Amplifier Applications with Capacitors
      1. Operational Amplifier Integrator
      2. Operational Amplifier Oscillator
      3. Summary of Equations
      4. Exercises and Projects
    19. Cascaded Amplifier Stages
      1. Combining NMOS and PMOS Circuits in Cascade
      2. Amplifier Gain of Differential Amplifier and Common-Source Stage in Cascade
      3. Stabilization of Signal Gain and Bias Current with a Source Resistor
      4. Common-Source Stage as a Series – Series Feedback Circuit
      5. Shunt – Series Cascade Amplifier
      6. Summary of Equations
    20. Development of a Basic CMOS Operational Amplifier
      1. Current-Source Bias for the Differential Amplifier Stage
      2. Current-Source Output Resistance and Common-Mode Gain
      3. Current-Source Load for the Common-Source Stage
      4. Current-Source Load for the Differential Stage
      5. Two-Stage Amplifier with Current-Source Biasing
      6. Output Buffer Stage
      7. Output Resistance of the Feedback Amplifier and Effect on Gain from Loading
      8. Output Circuit of the TS271 Opamp
      9. Summary of Equations
    21. Communicating with the Circuit Board: LabVIEW Programming and Measurement Exercises
      1. Basics of Sending and Receiving Circuit Voltages
      2. ADC and the Autoranging Voltmeter
      3. LabVIEW Oscilloscope and Voltmeter (ac)
      4. Measuring the Discrete Characteristics of Sending and Receiving Voltages
      5. Sending and Receiving Waveforms
      6. Summary of Programming Projects
    22. Characterization of the Bipolar Junction Transistor for Circuit Simulation
      1. Fundamentals of Bipolar Junction Transistor Action
      2. Base-Width Dependence on Junction Voltage
      3. BJT Base, Emitter, and Collector Currents in the Active Mode
      4. Diode-Connected Transistor Circuits for Measuring Base and Collector Current
      5. Output Characteristics of BJT in the Common-Emitter Mode
      6. SPICE Solution for IC versus VCE of the Measurement Circuit
      7. Collector-Emitter Voltage and Collector Current in the Saturation Region
      8. SPICE BJT βDC as a Function of Collector Current
      9. Signal or Incremental Common-Emitter Current Gain
      10. Summary of Equations
      11. Exercises and Projects
    23. Common-Emitter Amplifier Stage
      1. DC (Bias) Analysis
      2. Linear or Signal Model for the BJT
      3. Amplifier Voltage Gain
      4. Accuracy of Transistor Gain Measurements
      5. Effect of Finite Slope of the Transistor Output Characteristic
      6. Selection of Coupling Capacitors
      7. Common-Emitter Amplifier with Active Load
      8. Frequency Response of NPN – PNP Amplifier Due to the Base Shunt Capacitor
      9. Common-Emitter Stage with Emitter Resistor and the Emitter-Follower Amplifier Stage
      10. Summary of BJT Model Parameter Relations
      11. Summary of Circuit Equations
      12. Exercises and Projects
    24. Basic Circuit Analysis for Electronic Circuits and Programming Exercises
      1. Resistor Voltage-Divider Measurements
      2. Resistor Voltage Divider with Current Measurement
      3. Resistor Voltage Divider with Resistor Measurement
      4. Resistor Voltage Divider with a Sine-Wave Source Voltage
      5. Frequency Response of a Resistor-Capacitor Circuit
    25. Basic NMOS Common-Source Amplifier with Programming Exercises
      1. NMOS Common-Source Circuit with Drain Current Measurement
      2. NMOS Common-Source Amplifier with Resistor Gate Bias Circuit
      3. Amplifier with Signal and Gain Measurement
    26. Characterization of the PMOS Transistor for Circuit Simulation
      1. SPICE Parameters and Pin Diagram
      2. SPICE Equations
      3. PMOS Transistor
      4. Low-Voltage Linear Region of the Output Characteristic
      5. PMOS Parameters from the Transfer Characteristic
      6. PMOS Lambda from the Transfer Characteristic
      7. PMOS Output Characteristic
      8. PMOS Lambda
    27. Characterization of the NMOS Transistor for Circuit Simulation
      1. SPICE Parameters and Chip Diagram
      2. NMOS Transistor
      3. SPICE Equations
      4. NMOS Parameters from the Transfer Characteristic
      5. NMOS Lambda from the Transfer Characteristic
      6. NMOS Gamma SubVI
      7. NMOS Gamma
      8. NMOS Circuit with Body Effect
    28. PMOS Common-Source Amplifier
      1. SPICE Equations and Pin Diagram
      2. PMOS Common-Source Amplifier DC Setup
      3. Amplifier Gain at One Bias Current
      4. Amplifier Gain versus Bias Current
    29. PMOS Common-Source Amplifier Stage with Current-Source Biasing
      1. PMOS Schematic and Pin Diagram
      2. SPICE PMOS and Circuit Equations
      3. PMOS Current-Source Amplifier DC Setup
      4. Amplifier Gain
      5. Amplifier Frequency Response
    30. NMOS Common-Source Amplifier Stage with Source-Resistor Bias
      1. Chip Diagram and SPICE Equation
      2. NMOS Common-Source Amplifier DC Evaluation
      3. Amplifier Gain at Optimum Bias for Linear Output
      4. Optimum Bias Stability Test
      5. Amplifier Frequency Response
    31. NMOS Source-Follower Stage
      1. SPICE Equations and Pin Diagram
      2. Source-Follower DC Evaluation
      3. Source-Follower Voltage Transfer Relation
      4. Source-Follower Voltage Transfer Relation with Body Effect
    32. MOSFET Differential Amplifier Stage
      1. SPICE Equations and Pin Diagram
      2. DC Evaluation of the Single-Power-Supply Differential Amplifier
      3. Determination of the PMOS Parameters
      4. Amplifier Gain Measurement
      5. Transistor Parameters and DC Imbalance
      6. Common-Mode Gain Measurement
    33. Current Mirror and Common-Source Amplifier with Current-Source Load
      1. SPICE Equations and Pin Diagram
      2. Evaluation of the Current-Source Circuit
      3. Evaluation of the Mirror-Current Circuit
      4. Evaluation of the Bias Setup
      5. Measurement of the Amplifier Gain versus Drain Current
    34. Operational Amplifier with Resistor Feedback
      1. SPICE Equations
      2. Bias Circuit Setup
      3. Opamp Offset Voltage
      4. Evaluation of the Bias Balancing Circuit
      5. Evaluation of the Gain and Signal Limits with Swept Input
      6. Evaluation of the Gain with Sine-Wave and Square-Wave Signals
      7. Determination of the Opamp Frequency Response
    35. Operational Amplifier Integrator and Oscillator
      1. SPICE Equations
      2. Opamp Integrator
      3. Opamp Oscillator
    36. Communicating with the Circuit Board Using the DAQ
      1. Sending and Receiving Voltages with the Sending and Receiving VIs
      2. Sending and Receiving Voltages from the Front Panel
      3. Plotting Measured Samples
      4. Using the Autoranging Voltmeter
      5. Observing the Oscilloscope Output Graph
      6. Discrete Output Voltage from the DAQ
      7. Discrete Input Voltage from the Circuit Board
      8. Using the Simultaneous Sending/Receiving Function
    37. Characterization of the Bipolar Junction Transistor for Circuit Simulation
      1. SPICE Parameters and Transistor Diagram
      2. SPICE Equations
      3. Diode-Connected Transistor Measurements
      4. Measurement of βDC versus the Collector Current
      5. BJT Output Characteristic Measurement
      6. Simulation of the Output Characteristic Measurement
    38. NPN Common-Emitter Amplifier
      1. SPICE Equations and Pin Diagram
      2. DC Circuit Setup and Parameter Determination
      3. Amplifier Gain at One Bias Current
      4. Amplifier Gain versus Bias Current
      5. Gain-Measurement Frequency Response
    39. NPN – PNP Common-Emitter Amplifier with Current-Source Load
      1. SPICE Equations and Pin Diagram
      2. Measurement of the PNP Parameters
      3. DC Circuit Setup
      4. Measurement of the Amplifier Gain