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Analog Circuit Design Volume 2

Book Description

Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book’s in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today’s demanding designs.














                • This is the companion volume to the successful Analog Circuit Design: A Tutorial Guide to Applications and Solutions (October 2011), which has sold over 5000 copies in its the first 6 months of since publication. It extends the Linear Technology collection of application notes, which provides analog experts with a full collection of reference designs and problem solving insights to apply to their own engineering challenges.
                • Full support package including online resources (LTSpice).
                • Contents include more application notes on power management, and data conversion and signal conditioning circuit solutions, plus an invaluable circuit collection of reference designs.

        Table of Contents

        1. Cover image
        2. Title page
        3. Table of Contents
        4. Copyright
        5. Dedication 1
        6. Dedication 2
        7. Publisher’s Note
          1. Trade marks
        8. Acknowledgments
        9. Introduction
          1. Why I Write
        10. Foreword
        11. PART 1: Power Management
          1. Section 1: Power Management Tutorials
            1. Section 1. Power Management Tutorials
              1. Performance enhancement techniques for three-terminal regulators (1)
              2. Load transient response testing for voltage regulators (2)
              3. A closed-loop, wideband, 100A active load (3)
            2. Chapter 1. Performance enhancement techniques for three-terminal regulators
            3. Chapter 2. Load transient response testing for voltage regulators: Practical considerations for testing and evaluating results
              1. Introduction
              2. Appendix A
              3. Appendix B
              4. Appendix C
              5. Appendix D
              6. References
            4. Chapter 3. A closed-loop, wideband, 100A active load: Brute force marries controlled speed
              1. Introduction
              2. Basic load transient generator
              3. Closed-loop load transient generator
              4. Detailed circuitry discussion
              5. Circuit testing
              6. Layout effects
              7. Regulator testing
              8. Appendix A
              9. Appendix B
              10. Appendix C
              11. References
          2. Section 2: Switching Regulator Design
            1. Section 2. Switching Regulator Design
              1. Some thoughts on DC/DC converters (4)
              2. Theoretical considerations for buck mode switching regulators (5)
            2. Chapter 4. Some thoughts on DC/DC converters
              1. Introduction
              2. 5V to ±15V converter circuits
              3. Micropower quiescent current converters
              4. 200mA output 1.5V to 5V converter
              5. High efficiency converters
              6. Wide range input converters
              7. High voltage converters
              8. Switched-capacitor based converters
              9. Appendix A
              10. Appendix B
              11. Appendix C
              12. Appendix D
              13. Appendix E
              14. Appendix F
              15. Appendix G
              16. Appendix H
              17. References
            3. Chapter 5. Theoritical considerations for buck mode switching regulators
              1. Introduction
              2. Absolute Maximum Ratings
              3. Package/order information
              4. Block Diagram Description
              5. Typical performance characteristics
              6. Pin Descriptions
              7. Ground Pin
              8. Feedback Pin
              9. Shutdown Pin
              10. Status Pin (Available Only On LT1176 Parts)
              11. ILIM PIN
              12. Error Amplifier
              13. Definition of Terms
              14. Positive Step-Down (Buck) Converter
              15. Tapped-Inductor Buck Converter
              16. Positive-To-Negative Converter
              17. Negative Boost Converter
              18. Inductor Selection
              19. Micropower Shutdown
              20. 5-Pin Current Limit
              21. Soft-Start
              22. Output Filters
              23. Input Filters
              24. Oscilloscope Techniques
              25. EMI Suppression
              26. Troubleshooting Hints
          3. Section 3: Linear Regulator Design
            1. Section 3. Linear Regulator Design
              1. High efficiency linear regulators (6)
            2. Chapter 6. High efficiency linear regulators
              1. Introduction
              2. Regulation from stable inputs
              3. Regulation from unstable input—AC line derived case
              4. SCR pre-regulator
              5. DC input pre-regulator
              6. 10A regulator with 400mV dropout
              7. Ultrahigh efficiency linear regulator
              8. Micropower pre-regulated linear regulator
              9. Appendix A
              10. Appendix B
              11. Appendix C
              12. References
          4. Section 4: High Voltage and High Current Applications
            1. Section 4. High Voltage and High Current Applications
              1. High voltage, low noise, DC/DC converters (7)
            2. Chapter 7. High voltage, low noise, DC/DC converters: A kilovolt with 100 microvolts of noise
              1. Introduction
              2. Resonant royer based converters
              3. Switched current source based resonant royer converters
              4. Low noise switching regulator driven resonant royer converters
              5. Controlled transition push-pull converters
              6. Flyback converters
              7. Summary of circuit characteristics
              8. Appendix A
              9. Appendix B
              10. Appendix C
              11. Appendix D
              12. Appendix E
              13. Appendix F
              14. Appendix G
              15. References
          5. Section 5: Powering Illumination Devices
            1. Section 5. Powering Illumination Devices
              1. A fourth generation of LCD backlight technology (8)
              2. Simple circuitry for cellular telephone/ camera flash illumination (9)
            2. Chapter 8. A fourth generation of LCD backlight technology: Component and measurement improvements refine performance
              1. Preface
              2. Introduction
              3. Perspectives on display efficiency
              4. Appendix A
              5. Appendix B
              6. Appendix C
              7. Appendix D
              8. Appendix E
              9. Appendix F
              10. Appendix G
              11. Appendix H
              12. Appendix I
              13. Appendix J
              14. Appendix K
              15. Appendix L
              16. References
            3. Chapter 9. Simple circuitry for cellular telephone/camera flash illumination: A practical guide for successfully implementing flashlamps
              1. Introduction
              2. Flash illumination alternatives
              3. Flashlamp basics
              4. Support circuitry
              5. Flash capacitor charger circuit considerations
              6. Detailed circuit discussion
              7. Lamp layout, RFI and related issues
              8. Appendix A
              9. References
          6. Section 6: Automotive and Industrial Power Design
            1. Section 6. Automotive and Industrial Power Design
              1. Extending the input voltage range of PowerPath circuits for automotive and industrial applications (10)
            2. Chapter 10. Extending the input voltage range of powerpath circuits for automotive and industrial applications
              1. Introduction
              2. Extending the voltage range
              3. Circuit for large negative input voltages
              4. Circuit for large positive input voltages
              5. Conclusion
        12. PART 2: Data Conversion, Signal Conditioning and High Frequency/RF
          1. Section 1: Data Conversion
            1. Section 1. Data Conversion
              1. Circuitry for single cell operation (11)
              2. Component and measurement advances ensure 16-bit DAC settling time (12)
              3. Fidelity testing for A→D converters (13)
            2. Chapter 11. Circuitry for single cell operation
              1. 10kHz V→F converter
              2. 10-bit A/D converter
              3. Sample-hold amplifier
              4. Fast sample-hold amplifier
              5. Temperature compensated crystal clock
              6. Voltage boosted output amplifier
              7. 5V output switching regulator
            3. Chapter 12. Component and measurement advances ensure 16-bit DAC settling time: The art of timely accuracy
              1. Introduction
              2. DAC settling time
              3. Considerations for measuring DAC settling time
              4. Practical DAC settling time measurement
              5. Detailed settling time circuitry
              6. Using the sampling-based settling time circuit
              7. Compensation capacitor effects
              8. Verifying results—alternate methods
              9. Alternate method I—bootstrapped clamp
              10. Alternate method II—sampling oscilloscope
              11. Alternate method III—differential amplifier
              12. Thermally induced settling errors
              13. Appendix A
              14. Appendix B
              15. Appendix C
              16. Appendix D
              17. Appendix E
              18. Appendix F
              19. Appendix G
              20. Appendix H
              21. References
            4. Chapter 13. Fidelity testing for A→D converters
              1. Introduction
              2. Overview
              3. Oscillator circuitry
              4. Verifying oscillator distortion
              5. A→D testing
              6. Appendix A
          2. Section 2: Signal Conditioning
            1. Section 2. Signal Conditioning
              1. Applications for a new power buffer (14)
              2. Thermal techniques in measurement and control circuitry (15)
              3. Methods for measuring op amp settling time (16)
              4. High speed comparator techniques (17)
              5. Designs for high performance voltage- to-frequency converters (18)
              6. Unique IC buffer enhances op amp designs, tames fast amplifiers (19)
              7. Power gain stages for monolithic amplifiers (20)
              8. Composite amplifiers (21)
              9. A simple method of designing multiple order all pole bandpass filters by cascading 2nd order sections (22)
              10. FilterCAD user’s manual, version 1.10 (23)
              11. 30 nanosecond settling time measurement for a precision wideband amplifier (24)
              12. Application and optimization of a 2GHz differential amplifier/ADC driver (25)
              13. 2 nanosecond, 0.1% resolution settling time measurement for wideband amplifiers (26)
              14. An introduction to acoustic thermometry (27)
            2. Chapter 14. Applications for a new power buffer
              1. Buffered output line driver
              2. Fast, stabilized buffer amplifier
              3. Video line driving amplifier
              4. Fast, precision sample-hold circuit
              5. Motor speed control
              6. Fan-based temperature controller
            3. Chapter 15. Thermal techniques in measurement and control circuitry
              1. Temperature controller
              2. Thermally stabilized pin photodiode signal conditioner
              3. 50MHz bandwidth thermal RMS→DC converter
              4. Low flow rate thermal flowmeter
              5. Thermally-based anemometer (air flowmeter)
              6. Low distortion, thermally stabilized Wien Bridge oscillator
              7. References
            4. Chapter 16. Methods of measuring op amp settling time
              1. References
            5. Chapter 17. High speed comparator techniques
              1. Introduction
              2. The LT1016—an overview
              3. The Rogue’s gallery of high speed comparator problems
              4. Oscilloscopes
              5. Applications section
              6. Fast track-and-hold circuit
              7. Appendix A
              8. Appendix B
              9. Appendix C
              10. Appendix D
              11. Appendix E
              12. References
            6. Chapter 18. Designs for high performance voltage-to-frequency converters
              1. Ultra-high speed 1hz to 100mhz v→f converter
              2. Fast response 1hz to 2.5Mhz v→f converter
              3. High stability quartz stabilized v→f converter
              4. Ultra-linear v→f converter
              5. Single cell v→f converter
              6. Sine wave output v→f converter
              7. 1/X transfer function v→f converters
              8. Ex transfer function v→f converter
              9. →frequency converter
              10. References
            7. Chapter 19. Unique IC buffer enhances op amp designs, tames fast amplifiers
              1. Introduction
              2. Design concept
              3. Basic design
              4. Follower boost
              5. Charge storage PNP
              6. Isolation-base transistor
              7. Complete circuit
              8. Buffer performance
              9. Bandwidth
              10. Phase delay
              11. Step response
              12. Output impedance
              13. Capacitive loading
              14. Slew response
              15. Input offset voltage
              16. Input bias current
              17. Voltage gain
              18. Output resistance
              19. Output noise voltage
              20. Saturation voltage
              21. Supply current
              22. Total harmonic distortion
              23. Maximum power
              24. Short circuit characteristics
              25. Isolating capacitive loads
              26. Integrators
              27. Impulse integrator
              28. Parallel operation
              29. Wideband amplifiers
              30. Track and hold
              31. Bidirectional current sources
              32. Voltage regulator
              33. Voltage/current regulator
              34. Supply splitter
              35. Overload clamping
              36. Conclusions
              37. Appendix
            8. Chapter 20. Power gain stages for monolithic amplifiers
              1. 150mA output stage
              2. High current booster
              3. UltraFast™ fed—forward current booster
              4. Simple voltage gain stages
              5. High current rail-to-rail output stage
              6. ±120V output stage
              7. Unipolar output, 1000V gain stage
              8. ±15V powered, bipolar output, voltage gain stage
              9. References
            9. Chapter 21. Composite amplifiers
            10. Chapter 22. A simple method of designing multiple order all pole bandpass filters by cascading 2nd order sections
              1. Introduction
              2. Designing bandpass filters
              3. Example 1—design
              4. Hardware implementation
              5. Designing bandpass filters—theory behind the design
              6. Cascading identical 2nd order bandpass sections
              7. Example 2—design
              8. Hardware implementation
              9. Mode 2 operation of ltc1060 family
              10. Cascading more than two identical 2nd order BP sections
              11. Using the tables
              12. Example 3—design
              13. Example 3—frequency response estimation
              14. Example 3—implementation
            11. Chapter 23. FilterCAD user’s manual, version 1.10
              1. What is filtercad?
              2. License agreement/disclaimer
              3. Filtercad download
              4. Hardware requirements
              5. What is a filter?
              6. Step one, the basic design
              7. Step two, graphing filter response
              8. Implementing the filter
              9. Saving your filter design
              10. Loading a filter design file
              11. Printing a report
              12. Quitting filtercad
              13. A Butterworth lowpass example
              14. A Chebyshev bandpass example
              15. Two elliptic examples
              16. A custom example
              17. Editing cascade order
              18. More practical examples
              19. Notches…the final frontier
              20. Appendix 1
              21. Appendix 2
            12. Chapter 24. 30 nanosecond settling time measurement for a precision wideband amplifier: Quantifying prompt certainty
              1. Introduction
              2. Settling time defined
              3. Considerations for measuring nanosecond region settling time
              4. Practical nanosecond settling time measurement
              5. Detailed settling time circuitry
              6. Using the sampling-based settling time circuit
              7. Compensation capacitor effects
              8. Verifying results—alternate method
              9. Summary and results
              10. Appendix A
              11. Appendix B
              12. Appendix C
              13. Appendix D
              14. Appendix E
              15. References
            13. Chapter 25. Application and optimization of a 2GHz differential amplifier/ADC driver
              1. Introduction
              2. Low distortion
              3. Low noise
              4. Gain and power options
              5. Input considerations
              6. Dynamic range and output networks
              7. Stability
              8. Layout considerations
              9. Conclusion
              10. Appendix A Terms and definitions
              11. Appendix B Sample noise calculations
              12. Appendix COptimizing noise performance by calculation of voltage and current noise correlation
              13. References
            14. Chapter 26. 2 nanosecond, 0.1% resolution settling time measurement for wideband amplifiers: Quantifying quick quiescence
              1. Introduction
              2. Settling time defined
              3. Considerations for measuring nanosecond region settling time
              4. Practical nanosecond settling time measurement
              5. Detailed settling time circuitry
              6. Using the sampling-based settling time circuit
              7. Verifying results—alternate method
              8. Summary of results and measurement limits
              9. Appendix A
              10. Appendix B
              11. Appendix C
              12. Appendix D
              13. Appendix E
              14. Appendix F
              15. Appendix G
              16. Appendix H
              17. References
            15. Chapter 27. An introduction to acoustic thermometry: An air filled olive jar teaches signal conditioning
              1. Introduction
              2. Acoustic thermometry
              3. Practical considerations
              4. Overview
              5. Detailed circuitry
              6. Appendix A
              7. Appendix B
              8. References
          3. Section 3: High Frequency/RF Design
            1. Section 3. High Frequency/RF Design
              1. Low noise varactor biasing with switching regulators (28)
              2. Low cost coupling methods for RF power detectors replace directional couplers (29)
              3. Improving the output accuracy over temperature for RMS power detectors (30)
            2. Chapter 28. Low noise varactor biasing with switching regulators: Vanquishing villainous vitiators vis-à-vis vital varactors
              1. Introduction
              2. Varactor biasing considerations
              3. Low noise switching regulator design
              4. Layout issues
              5. Level shifts
              6. Test circuit
              7. Noise performance
              8. Effects of poor measurement technique
              9. Frequency-domain performance
              10. Appendix A
              11. Zetex variable capacitance diodes
              12. Appendix B
              13. Appendix C
              14. References
            3. Chapter 29. Low cost coupling methods for RF power detectors replace directional couplers
              1. Introduction
            4. Chapter 30. Improving the output accuracy over temperature for RMS power detectors
              1. Introduction
              2. Ltc5583 temperature compensation design
              3. 2nd Iteration calculation
              4. LTC5582 single detector
              5. Conclusion
        13. PART 3: Circuit Collections
          1. Part 3. Circuit Collections
            1. Circuit techniques for clock sources (31)
            2. Measurement and control circuit collection (32)
            3. Circuit collection, volume I (33)
            4. Video circuit collection (34)
            5. Practical circuitry for measurement and control problems (35)
            6. Circuit collection, volume III: data conversion, interface and signal processing (36)
            7. Part Three
            8. Circuit collection, volume V: data conversion, interface and signal conditioning products (38)
            9. Signal sources, conditioners and power circuitry (39)
            10. Current sense circuit collection (40)
            11. Power conversion, measurement and pulse circuits (41)
          2. Chapter 31. Circuit techniques for clock sources
            1. Noncrystal clock circuits
          3. Chapter 32. Measurement and control circuit collection: Diapers and designs on the night shift
            1. Introduction
            2. Low noise and drift chopped bipolar amplifier
            3. Low noise and drift-chopped FET amplifier
            4. Stabilized, wideband cable driving amplifier with low input capacitance
            5. Voltage programmable, ground referred current source
            6. 5V Powered, fully floating 4mA to 20mA current loop transmitter
            7. Transistor ΔVBE based thermometer
            8. Micropower, cold junction compensated thermocouple-to-frequency converter
            9. Relative humidity signal conditioner
            10. Inexpensive precision electronic barometer
            11. 1.5V Powered radiation detector
            12. 9ppm Distortion, quartz stabilized oscillator
            13. 1.5V Powered temperature compensated crystal oscillator
            14. 90μA Precision voltage-to-frequency converter
            15. Bipolar (AC) input V-F converter
            16. 1.5V Powered, 350ps rise time pulse generator
            17. A simple ultralow dropout regulator
            18. Cold cathode fluorescent lamp power supply
            19. References
          4. Chapter 33. Circuit collection, volume I
            1. Introduction
            2. A-to-D converters
            3. Interface
            4. Power
            5. Filters
            6. Miscellaneous circuits
          5. Chapter 34. Video circuit collection
            1. Introduction
            2. Video cable drivers
            3. Video processing circuits
            4. Multiplexer circuits
            5. Appendix A
            6. Appendix B
            7. Appendix C
            8. Conclusion
          6. Chapter 35. Practical circuitry for measurement and control problems: Circuits designed for a cruel and unyielding world
            1. Introduction
            2. Appendix A
            3. Appendix B
            4. References
          7. Chapter 36. Circuit collection, volume III: Data conversion, interface and signal processing
            1. Introduction
            2. Data conversion
            3. Interface
            4. Filters
            5. Instrumentation
            6. Noise generators for multiple uses
            7. Noise generators for multiple uses
            8. Video/op amps
            9. Miscellaneous circuits
          8. Chapter 37. Circuitry for signal conditioning and power conversion: Designs from a once lazy sabbatical
            1. Introduction
            2. Micropower voltage-to-frequency converters
            3. Micropower a/d converters
            4. 10-bit, micropower a/d converter
            5. Differential input, 10mhz rms/dc converter
            6. Nanosecond coincidence detector
            7. 15 nanosecond waveform sampler
            8. 5.5μA powered, 0.05μv/°c chopped amplifier
            9. Pilot light flame detector with low-battery lockout
            10. Tip-acceleration detector for shipping containers
            11. 32.768khz “watch crystal” oscillator
            12. Complementary output, 50% duty cycle crystal oscillator
            13. Nonoverlapping, complementary output crystal oscillator
            14. High power ccfl backlight inverter for desktop displays
            15. Ultralow noise power converters
            16. Low noise boost regulator
            17. Low noise bipolar supply
            18. Ultralow noise off-line power supply
            19. Appendix A
            20. Appendix B
            21. References
          9. Chapter 38. Circuit collection, volume V: Data conversion, interface and signal conditioning products
            1. Introduction
            2. Data converters
            3. Interface circuits
            4. Operational amplifiers/video amplifiers
            5. Telecommunications circuits
            6. Comparators
            7. Instrumentation circuits
            8. Filters
            9. Miscellaneous
          10. Chapter 39. Signal sources, conditioners and power circuitry
            1. Introduction
            2. Voltage controlled current source—ground referred input and output
            3. Stabilized oscillator for network telephone identification
            4. Micro-mirror display pulse generator
            5. Simple rise time and frequency reference
            6. 850 picosecond rise time pulse generator with <1% pulse top aberrations
            7. 20 picosecond rise time pulse generator
            8. Nanosecond pulse width generator
            9. Single rail powered amplifier with true zero volt output swing
            10. Milliohmmeter
            11. 0.02% accurate instrumentation amplifier with 125vcm and 120db cmrr
            12. Wideband, low feedthrough, low level switch
            13. 5V powered, 0.0015% linearity, quartz-stabilized v→f converter
            14. Basic flashlamp illumination circuit for cellular telephones/cameras
            15. 0V to 300v output dc/dc converter
            16. Low ripple and noise 0v to 300v output dc/dc converter
            17. 5V to 200v converter for apd bias
            18. Wide range, high power, high voltage regulator
            19. 5V to 3.3V, 15a paralleled linear regulator
            20. Appendix A
            21. Appendix B
            22. References
          11. Chapter 40. Current sense circuit collection: Making sense of current
            1. Introduction
            2. Current sense basics
            3. Low side current sensing (Figure 40.1)
            4. High side current sensing (Figure 40.2)
            5. Full-range (high and low side) current sensing (Figure 40.3)
            6. High side
            7. Low side
            8. Negative voltage
            9. Monitor current in positive or negative supply lines (Figure 40.40)
            10. Unidirectional
            11. Bidirectional
            12. AC
            13. DC
            14. Level shifting
            15. High voltage
            16. Low voltage
            17. High current (100mA to Amps)
            18. Low current (picoamps to milliamps)
            19. Motors and inductive loads
            20. Batteries
            21. High speed
            22. Fast compact −48V current sense (Figure 40.149)
            23. Fault sensing
            24. Digitizing
            25. Current control
            26. Precision
            27. Wide range
          12. Chapter 41. Power conversion, measurement and pulse circuits: Tales from the laboratory notebook
            1. Introduction
            2. JFET-based dc/dc converter powered from 300mv supply
            3. Bipolar transistor-based 550mv input dc/dc converter
            4. 5V to 200v converter for apd bias
            5. Battery internal resistance meter
            6. Floating output, variable potential battery simulator
            7. 40nvp-p noise, 0.05μv/°c drift, chopped fet amplifier
            8. Wideband, chopper stabilized fet amplifier
            9. Submicroampere rms current measurement for quartz crystals
            10. Direct reading quartz crystal-based remote thermometer
            11. 1Hz–100mhz v→f converter
            12. Delayed pulse generator with variable time phase, low jitter trigger output
            13. References
        14. Index