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Analog Circuit Design

Book Description

* Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges.

* Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice.

* Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design.

* Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Williams and Carl Nelson, among others.

* Online support package, including LTspiceÒ software, Design Notes, plus videos and data sheets can be found at

www.elsevierdirect.com/companions/9780123851857

Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions will aid systems designers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common circuit design challenges. The book’s in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today’s demanding designs.

* Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges.

* Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice.

* Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design.

* Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Williams and Carl Nelson, among others.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Dedication
  7. Publisher’s Note
    1. Trademarks
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Introduction
    1. Why write applications?
  10. Foreword
  11. Part 1: Power Management
    1. Section 1. Power Management Tutorials
      1. 1. Ceramic input capacitors can cause overvoltage transients
        1. Plug in the wall adapter at your own risk
        2. Building the Test Circuit
        3. Turning on the switch
        4. Testing a portable application
        5. Input voltage transients with different input elements
        6. Optimizing Input Capacitors
        7. Conclusion
      2. 2. Minimizing switching regulator residue in linear regulator outputs: Banishing those accursed spikes
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      3. 3. Power conditioning for notebook and palmtop systems
        1. Introduction
        2. Battery charging
        3. Power supplies for palmtop computers
      4. 4. 2-Wire virtual remote sensing for voltage regulators: Clairvoyance marries remote sensing
        1. Introduction
        2. “Virtual” remote sensing
        3. Applications
        4. VRS linear regulators
        5. VRS equipped switching regulators
        6. VRS based isolated switching supplies
        7. VRS halogen lamp drive circuit
        8. References
    2. Section 2. Switching Regulator Design
      1. 5. LT1070 design manual
        1. Introduction
        2. Preface
        3. LT1070 operation
        4. Pin functions
        5. Basic switching regulator topologies
        6. Application circuits
        7. Negative buck converter
        8. Negative-to-positive buck-boost converter
        9. Positive buck converter
        10. Flyback converter
        11. Totally isolated converter
        12. Positive current-boosted buck converter
        13. Negative current-boosted buck converter
        14. Negative input/negative output flyback converter
        15. Positive-to-negative flyback converter
        16. Voltage-boosted boost converter
        17. Negative boost converter
        18. Positive-to-negative buck boost converter
        19. Current-boosted boost converter
        20. Forward converter
        21. Frequency compensation
        22. External current limiting
        23. Driving external transistors
        24. Output rectifying diode
        25. Input filters
        26. Efficiency calculations
        27. Output filters
        28. Input and output capacitors
        29. Inductor and transformer basics
        30. Heat sinking information
        31. Troubleshooting hints
        32. Warning
        33. Subharmonic oscillations
        34. Inductor/transformer manufacturers
        35. Core manufacturers
        36. Bibliography
      2. 6. Switching regulators for poets: A gentle guide for the trepidatious
        1. Basic flyback regulator
        2. −48V to 5V telecom flyback regulator
        3. Fully-isolated telecom flyback regulator
        4. 100W off-line switching regulator
        5. Switch-controlled motor speed controller
        6. Switch-controlled peltier 0°C reference
        7. Acknowledgments
      3. 7. Step-down switching regulators
        1. Basic step down circuit
        2. Practical step-down switching regulator
        3. Dual output step-down regulator
        4. Negative output regulators
        5. Current-boosted step-down regulator
        6. Post regulation-fixed case
        7. Post regulation-variable case
        8. Low quiescent current regulators
        9. Wide range, high power, high voltage regulator
        10. Regulated sinewave output DC/AC converter
        11. References
      4. 8. A monolithic switching regulator with 100μV output noise: “Silence is the perfectest herald of joy ...”
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      5. 9. Powering complex FPGA-based systems using highly integrated DC/DC μModule regulator systems: Part 1 of 2 Circuit and electrical performance
        1. Innovation in DC/DC design
        2. DC/DC μModule Regulators: Complete Systems in an LGA Package
        3. 48A from four parallel DC/DC μModule regulators
        4. Start-up, soft-start and current sharing
        5. Conclusion
      6. 10. Powering complex FPGA-based systems using highly integrated DC/DC µModule regulator systems: Part 2 of 2 Thermal performance and layout
        1. 60W by paralleling four DC/DC μModule regulators
        2. Thermal performance
        3. Simple copy and paste layout
        4. Conclusion
      7. 11. Diode turn-on time induced failures in switching regulators: Never Has so Much Trouble Been Had By so Many with so Few Terminals
        1. Introduction
        2. Diode turn-on time perspectives
        3. Detailed measurement scheme
        4. Diode Testing and Interpreting Results
        5. References
    3. Section 3. Linear Regulator Design
      1. 12. Performance verification of low noise, low dropout regulators: Silence of the amps
        1. Introduction
        2. Noise and noise testing
        3. Noise testing considerations
        4. Instrumentation performance verification
        5. Regulator noise measurement
        6. Bypass capacitor (CBYP) influence
        7. Interpreting comparative results
        8. References
    4. Section 4. High Voltage and High Current Applications
      1. 13. Parasitic capacitance effects in step-up transformer design
      2. 14. High efficiency, high density, PolyPhase converters for high current applications
        1. Introduction
        2. How do PolyPhase techniques affect circuit performance?
        3. Design considerations
        4. Design example: 100A PolyPhase power supply
        5. Summary
    5. Section 5. Powering Lasers and Illumination Devices
      1. 15. Ultracompact LCD backlight inverters: A svelte beast cuts high voltage down to size
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      2. 16. A thermoelectric cooler temperature controller for fiber optic lasers: Climatic pampering for temperamental lasers
        1. Introduction
        2. Temperature Controller Requirements
        3. Temperature Controller Details
        4. Thermal Loop Considerations
        5. Temperature Control Loop Optimization
        6. Temperature Stability Verification
        7. Reflected Noise Performance
        8. References
      3. 17. Current sources for fiber optic lasers: A compendium of pleasant current events
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      4. 18. Bias voltage and current sense circuits for avalanche photodiodes: Feeding and reading the APD
        1. Introduction
        2. Summary
        3. References
    6. Section 6. Automotive and Industrial Power Design
      1. 19. Developments in battery stack voltage measurement: A simple solution to a not so simple problem
        1. The battery stack problem
        2. Transformer based sampling voltmeter
        3. Detailed circuit operation
        4. Multi-cell version
        5. Automatic control and calibration
        6. Firmware description
        7. Measurement details
        8. Adding more channels
        9. References
  12. Part 2: Data conversion, signal conditioning and high frequency/RF
    1. Section 1. Data Conversion
      1. 20. Some techniques for direct digitization of transducer outputs
      2. 21. The care and feeding of high performance ADCs: get all the bits you paid for
        1. Introduction
        2. An ADC has many “inputs”
        3. Ground planes and grounding
        4. Supply bypassing
        5. Reference bypassing
        6. Driving the analog input
        7. Choosing an op amp
        8. Driving the convert-start input
        9. Routing the data outputs
        10. Conclusion
      3. 22. A standards lab grade 20-bit DAC with 0.1ppm/°C drift: The dedicated art of digitizing one part per million
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      4. 23. Delta sigma ADC bridge measurement techniques
        1. Introduction
        2. Low cost, precision altimeter uses direct digitization
        3. How Many Bits?
        4. Increasing Resolution with Amplifiers
        5. How Much Gain?
        6. ADC Response to Amplifier Noise
        7. How Many Bits?
        8. Faster or More Resolution with the LTC2440
        9. How Many Bits?
      5. 24. 1ppm settling time measurement for a monolithic 18-bit DAC: When does the last angel stop dancing on a speeding pinhead?
        1. Introduction
        2. DAC settling time
        3. Considerations for measuring DAC settling time
        4. Sampling based high resolution DAC settling time measurement
        5. Developing a sampling switch
        6. Electronic switch equivalents
        7. Transconductance amplifier based switch equivalent
        8. DAC settling time measurement method
        9. Detailed settling time circuitry
        10. Settling time circuit performance
        11. Using the sampling-based settling time circuit
        12. References
    2. Section 2. Signal Conditioning
      1. 25. Applications for a switched-capacitor instrumentation building block
        1. Instrumentation amplifier
        2. Ultrahigh performance instrumentation amplifier
        3. Lock-in amplifier
        4. Wide range, digitally controlled, variable gain amplifier
        5. Precision, linearized platinum RTD signal conditioner
        6. Relative humidity sensor signal conditioner
        7. LVDT signal conditioner
        8. Charge pump F→V and V→F converters
        9. 12-bit A→D converter
        10. Miscellaneous circuits
        11. Voltage-controlled current source—grounded source and load
        12. Current sensing in supply rails
        13. 0.01% analog multiplier
        14. Inverting a reference
        15. Low power, 5 V driven, temperature compensated crystal oscillator
        16. Simple thermometer
        17. High current, “inductorless,” switching regulator
      2. 26. Application considerations and circuits for a new chopper-stabilized op amp
        1. Applications
        2. Standard grade variable voltage reference
        3. Ultra-precision instrumentation amplifier
        4. High performance isolation amplifier
        5. Stabilized, low input capacitance buffer (FET probe)
        6. Chopper-stabilized comparator
        7. Stabilized data converter
        8. Wide range V→F converter
        9. 1Hz to 30MHz V→F converter
        10. 16-bit A/D converter
        11. Simple remote thermometer
        12. Output stages
        13. References
      3. 27. Designing linear circuits for 5V single supply operation
        1. Linearized RTD signal conditioner
        2. Linearized output methane detector
        3. Cold junction compensated thermocouple signal conditioner
        4. 5V powered precision instrumentation amplifier
        5. 5V powered strain gauge signal conditioner
        6. “Tachless” motor speed controller
        7. 4-20mA current loop transmitter
        8. Fully isolated limit comparator
        9. Fully isolated 10-bit A/D converter
      4. 28. Application considerations for an instrumentation lowpass filter
        1. Description
        2. Tuning the LTC1062
        3. LTC1062 clock requirements
        4. Internal oscillator
        5. Clock feedthrough
        6. Single 5V supply operation
        7. Dynamic range and signal/noise ratio
        8. Step response and burst response
        9. LTC1062 shows little aliasing
        10. Cascading the LTC1062
        11. Using the LTC1062 to create a notch
        12. Comments on capacitor types
        13. Clock circuits
        14. Acknowledgement
      5. 29. Micropower circuits for signal conditioning
        1. Platinum RTD signal conditioner
        2. Thermocouple signal conditioner
        3. Sampled strain gauge signal conditioner
        4. Strobed operation strain gauge bridge signal conditioner
        5. Thermistor signal conditioner for current loop application
        6. Microampere drain wall thermostat
        7. Freezer alarm
        8. 12-Bit A/D converter
        9. 10-Bit, 100μA A/D converter
        10. 20μs sample-hold
        11. 10kHz voltage-to-frequency converter
        12. 1MHz voltage-to-frequency converter
        13. Switching regulator
        14. Post regulated micropower switching regulator
      6. 30. Thermocouple measurement
        1. Introduction
        2. Thermocouples in perspective
        3. Signal conditioning issues
        4. Cold junction compensation
        5. Amplifier selection
        6. Additional circuit considerations
        7. Differential thermocouple amplifiers
        8. Isolated thermocouple amplifiers
        9. Digital output thermocouple isolator
        10. Linearization techniques
        11. References
      7. 31. Take the mystery out of the switched-capacitor filter: The system designer’s filter compendium
        1. Introduction
        2. Circuit board layout considerations
        3. Power supplies
        4. Input considerations
        5. Filter response
        6. Filter sensitivity
        7. Output considerations
        8. Clock circuitry
        9. Conclusions
        10. Bibliography
      8. 32. Bridge circuits: Marrying gain and balance
        1. Resistance bridges
        2. Bridge output amplifiers
        3. DC bridge circuit applications
        4. Common mode suppression techniques
        5. Single supply common mode suppression circuits
        6. Switched-capacitor based instrumentation amplifiers
        7. Optically coupled switched-capacitor instrumentation amplifier
        8. Platinum RTD resistance bridge circuits
        9. Digitally corrected platinum resistance bridge
        10. Thermistor bridge
        11. Low power bridge circuits
        12. Strobed power bridge drive
        13. Sampled output bridge signal conditioner
        14. Continuous output sampled bridge signal conditioner
        15. High resolution continuous output sampled bridge signal conditioner
        16. AC driven bridge/synchronous demodulator
        17. AC driven bridge for level transduction
        18. Time domain bridge
        19. Bridge oscillator—square wave output
        20. Quartz stabilized bridge oscillator
        21. Sine wave output quartz stabilized bridge oscillator
        22. Wien bridge-based oscillators
        23. Diode bridge-based 2.5MHz precision rectifier/AC voltmeter
        24. References
      9. 33. High speed amplifier techniques: A designer’s companion for wideband circuitry
        1. Preface
        2. Introduction
        3. Perspectives on high speed design
        4. Mr. Murphy’s gallery of high speed amplifier problems
        5. Tutorial section
        6. Applications Section I — Amplifiers
        7. Applications Section II — Oscillators
        8. Applications section III — Data conversion
        9. APPLICATIONS SECTION IV — MISCELLANEOUS CIRCUITS
        10. References
      10. 34. A seven-nanosecond comparator for single supply operation: Guidance for putting civilized speed to work
        1. Introduction
        2. The LT1394 — an overview
        3. Tutorial section
        4. Applications
        5. References
      11. 35. Understanding and applying voltage references
        1. Essential features
        2. Reference pitfalls
        3. Reference applications
        4. Conclusion
        5. For further reading
      12. 36. Instrumentation applications for a monolithic oscillator: A clock for all reasons
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      13. 37. Slew rate verification for wideband amplifiers: The taming of the slew
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      14. 38. Instrumentation circuitry using RMS-to-DC converters: RMS converters rectify average results
        1. Introduction
        2. References
      15. 39. 775 nanovolt noise measurement for a low noise voltage reference: Quantifying silence
        1. Introduction
        2. Noise measurement
        3. Noise measurement circuit performance
        4. References
    3. Section 3. High Frequency/RF Design
      1. 40. LT5528 WCDMA ACPR, AltCPR and noise measurements
        1. Introduction
      2. 41. Measuring phase and delay errors accurately in I/Q modulators
        1. Introduction
        2. Measurements
        3. Applying the method
        4. Conclusion
  13. Subject Index