You are previewing An Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics.
O'Reilly logo
An Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Book Description

The new edition of this introductory graduate textbook provides a concise but accessible introduction to the Standard Model. It has been updated to account for the successes of the theory of strong interactions, and the observations on matter-antimatter asymmetry. It has become clear that neutrinos are not mass-less, and this book gives a coherent presentation of the phenomena and the theory that describes them. It includes an account of progress in the theory of strong interactions and of advances in neutrino physics. The book clearly develops the theoretical concepts from the electromagnetic and weak interactions of leptons and quarks to the strong interactions of quarks. Each chapter ends with problems, and hints to selected problems are provided at the end of the book. The mathematical treatments are suitable for graduates in physics, and more sophisticated mathematical ideas are developed in the text and appendices.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. An Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the second edition
  7. Preface to the first edition
  8. Notation
  9. 1 The particle physicist’s view of Nature
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 The construction of the Standard Model
    3. 1.3 Leptons
    4. 1.4 Quarks and systems of quarks
    5. 1.5 Spectroscopy of systems of light quarks
    6. 1.6 More quarks
    7. 1.7 Quark colour
    8. 1.8 Electron scattering from nucleons
    9. 1.9 Particle accelerators
    10. 1.10 Units
  10. 2 Lorentz transformations
    1. 2.1 Rotations, boosts and proper Lorentz transformations
    2. 2.2 Scalars, contravariant and covariant four-vectors
    3. 2.3 Fields
    4. 2.4 The Levi–Civita tensor
    5. 2.5 Time reversal and space inversion
  11. 3 The Lagrangian formulation of mechanics
    1. 3.1 Hamilton’s principle
    2. 3.2 Conservation of energy
    3. 3.3 Continuous systems
    4. 3.4 A Lorentz covariant field theory
    5. 3.5 The Klein–Gordon equation
    6. 3.6 The energy–momentum tensor
    7. 3.7 Complex scalar fields
  12. 4 Classical electromagnetism
    1. 4.1 Maxwell’s equations
    2. 4.2 A Lagrangian density for electromagnetism
    3. 4.3 Gauge transformations
    4. 4.4 Solutions of Maxwell’s equations
    5. 4.5 Space inversion
    6. 4.6 Charge conjugation
    7. 4.7 Intrinsic angular momentum of the photon
    8. 4.8 The energy density of the electromagnetic field
    9. 4.9 Massive vector fields
  13. 5 The Dirac equation and the Dirac field
    1. 5.1 The Dirac equation
    2. 5.2 Lorentz transformations and Lorentz invariance
    3. 5.3 The parity transformation
    4. 5.4 Spinors
    5. 5.5 The matrices γμ
    6. 5.6 Making the Lagrangian density real
  14. 6 Free space solutions of the Dirac equation
    1. 6.1 A Dirac particle at rest
    2. 6.2 The intrinsic spin of a Dirac particle
    3. 6.3 Plane waves and helicity
    4. 6.4 Negative energy solutions
    5. 6.5 The energy and momentum of the Dirac field
    6. 6.6 Dirac and Majorana fields
    7. 6.7 The E >> m limit, neutrinos
  15. 7 Electrodynamics
    1. 7.1 Probability density and probability current
    2. 7.2 The Dirac equation with an electromagnetic field
    3. 7.3 Gauge transformations and symmetry
    4. 7.4 Charge conjugation
    5. 7.5 The electrodynamics of a charged scalar field
    6. 7.6 Particles at low energies and the Dirac magnetic moment
  16. 8 Quantising fields: QED
    1. 8.1 Boson and fermion field quantisation
    2. 8.2 Time dependence
    3. 8.3 Perturbation theory
    4. 8.4 Renornmalisation and renormalisable field theories
    5. 8.5 The magnetic moment of the electron
    6. 8.6 Quantisation in the Standard Model
  17. 9 The weak interaction: low energy phenomenology
    1. 9.1 Nuclear beta decay
    2. 9.2 Pion decay
    3. 9.3 Conservation of lepton number
    4. 9.4 Muon decay
    5. 9.5 The interactions of muon neutrinos with electrons
  18. 10 Symmetry breaking in model theories
    1. 10.1 Global symmetry breaking and Goldstone bosons
    2. 10.2 Local symmetry breaking and the Higgs boson
  19. 11 Massive gauge fields
    1. 11.1 SU(2) symmetry
    2. 11.2 The gauge fields
    3. 11.3 Breaking the SU(2) symmetry
    4. 11.4 Identification of the fields
  20. 12 The Weinberg–Salam electroweak theory for leptons
    1. 12.1 Lepton doublets and the Weinberg–Salam theory
    2. 12.2 Lepton coupling to the W±
    3. 12.3 Lepton coupling to the Z
    4. 12.4 Conservation of lepton number and conservation of charge
    5. 12.5 CP symmetry
    6. 12.6 Mass terms in : an attempted generalisation
  21. 13 Experimental tests of the Weinberg–Salam theory
    1. 13.1 The search for the gauge bosons
    2. 13.2 The W± bosons
    3. 13.3 The Z boson
    4. 13.4 The number of lepton families
    5. 13.5 The measurement of partial widths
    6. 13.6 Left–right production cross-section asymmetry and lepton decay asymmetry of the Z boson
  22. 14 The electromagnetic and weak interactions of quarks
    1. 14.1 Construction of the Lagrangian density
    2. 14.2 Quark masses and the Kobayashi–Maskawa mixing matrix
    3. 14.3 The parameterisation of the KM matrix
    4. 14.4 CP symmetry and the KM matrix
    5. 14.5 The weak interaction in the low energy limit
  23. 15 The hadronic decays of the Z and W bosons
    1. 15.1 Hadronic decays of the Z
    2. 15.2 Asymmetry in quark production
    3. 15.3 Hadronic decays of the W±
  24. 16 The theory of strong interactions: quantum chromodynamics
    1. 16.1 A local SU(3) gauge theory
    2. 16.2 Colour gauge transformations on baryons and mesons
    3. 16.3 Lattice QCD and asymptotic freedom
    4. 16.4 The quark–antiquark interaction at short distances
    5. 16.5 The conservation of quarks
    6. 16.6 Isospin symmetry
    7. 16.7 Chiral symmetry
  25. 17 Quantum chromodynamics: calculations
    1. 17.1 Lattice QCD and confinement
    2. 17.2 Lattice QCD and hadrons
    3. 17.3 Perturbative QCD and deep inelastic scattering
    4. 17.4 Perturbative QCD and e+e− collider physics
  26. 18 The Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix
    1. 18.1 Leptonic weak decays of hadrons
    2. 18.2 |Vud| and nuclear β decay
    3. 18.3 More leptonic decays
    4. 18.4 CP symmetry violation in neutral kaon decays
    5. 18.5 B meson decays and Bo, o mixing
    6. 18.6 The CPT theorem
  27. 19 Neutrino masses and mixing
    1. 19.1 Neutrino masses
    2. 19.2 The weak currents
    3. 19.3 Neutrino oscillations
    4. 19.4 The MSW effect
    5. 19.5 Neutrino masses and the Standard Moael
    6. 19.6 Parameterisation of U
    7. 19.7 Lepton number conservation
    8. 19.8 Sterile neutrinos
  28. 20 Neutrino masses and mixing: experimental results
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 K2K
    3. 20.3 Chooz
    4. 20.4 KamLAND
    5. 20.5 Atmospheric neutrinos
    6. 20.6 Solar neutrinos
    7. 20.7 Solar MSW effects
    8. 20.8 Future prospects
  29. 21 Majorana neutrinos
    1. 21.1 Majorana neutrino fields
    2. 21.2 Majorana Lagrangian density
    3. 21.3 Majorana field equations
    4. 21.4 Majorana neutrinos: mixing and oscillations
    5. 21.5 Parameterisation of U
    6. 21.6 Majorana neutrinos in the Standard Model
    7. 21.7 The seesaw mechanism
    8. 21.8 Are neutrinos Dirac or Majorana?
  30. 22 Anomalies
    1. 22.1 The Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly
    2. 22.2 Cancellation of anomalies in electroweak currents
    3. 22.3 Lepton and baryon anomalies
    4. 22.4 Gauge transformations and the topological number
    5. 22.5 The instability of matter, and matter genesis
  31. Epilogue
    1. Reductionism complete?
  32. Appendix A An aide-mémoire on matrices
    1. A.1 Definitions and notation
    2. A.2 Properties of n × n matrices
    3. A.3 Hermitian and unitary matrices
    4. A.4 A Fierz transformation
  33. Appendix B The groups of the Standard Model
    1. B.1 Definition of a group
    2. B.2 Rotations of the coordinate axes, and the group SO(3)
    3. B.3 The group SU(2)
    4. B.4 The group SL (2,C) and the proper Lorentz group
    5. B.5 Transformations of the Pauli matrices
    6. B.6 Spinors
    7. B.7 The group SU(3)
  34. Appendix C Annihilation and creation operators
    1. C.1 The simple harmonic oscillator
    2. C.2 An assembly of bosons
    3. C.3 An assembly of fermions
  35. Appendix D The parton model
    1. D.1 Elastic electron scattering from nucleons
    2. D.2 Inelastic electron scattering from nucleons: the parton model
    3. D.3 Hadronic states
  36. Appendix E Mass matrices and mixing
    1. E.1 Ko and o
    2. E.2 Bo and o
  37. References
  38. Hints to selected problems
  39. Index