**5** **SOME MATHEMATICAL ASPECTS OF FORCE AND ENERGY**

**5.1 Introduction**

The last chapter introduced quite a few new physical concepts—work, potential energy, kinetic energy, the work-energy theorem, conservative and nonconservative forces, and the conservation of energy.

In this chapter there are no new physical ideas; this chapter is on mathematics. We are going to introduce several mathematical techniques which will help express the ideas of the last chapter in a more revealing manner. The rationale for this is partly that mathematical elegance can be a source of pleasure, but chiefly that the results developed here will be useful in other areas of physics, particularly in the study of electricity and magnetism. We shall find how to tell whether ...

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