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An Introduction to Composite Materials, Second Edition

Book Description

This edition has been greatly enlarged and updated to provide both scientists and engineers with a clear and comprehensive understanding of composite materials. In describing both theoretical and practical aspects of their production, properties and usage, the book crosses the borders of many disciplines. Topics covered include: fibres, matrices, laminates and interfaces; elastic deformation, stress and strain, strength, fatigue crack propagation and creep resistance; toughness and thermal properties; fatigue and deterioration under environmental conditions; fabrication and applications. Coverage has been increased to include polymeric, metallic and ceramic matrices and reinforcement in the form of long fibres, short fibres and particles. Designed primarily as a teaching text for final-year undergraduates in materials science and engineering, this book will also interest undergraduates and postgraduates in chemistry, physics, and mechanical engineering. In addition, it will be an excellent source book for academic and technological researchers on materials.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. From the preface to First Edition
  7. Preface to Second Edition
  8. 1. General introduction
    1. 1.1 Types of composite material
    2. 1.2 Design of composite materals
    3. 1.3 The concept of load transfer
    4. References and further reading
  9. 2. Fibres and matrices
    1. 2.1 Reinforcements
      1. 2.1.1 Carbon fibres
      2. 2.1.2 Glass fibres
      3. 2.1.3 Organic fibres
      4. 2.1.4 Silicon carbide
      5. 2.1.5 Alumina and aluminosilicates
    2. 2.2 The strength of reinforcements
      1. 2.2.1 Thermal stability
      2. 2.2.2 Compressive strength
      3. 2.2.3 Fibre fracture and flexibility
      4. 2.2.4 A statistical treatment of fibre strength
    3. 2.3 Matrices
      1. 2.3.1 Polymer matrices
      2. 2.3.2 Metal matrices
      3. 2.3.3 Ceramic matrices
    4. References and further reading
  10. 3. Fibre architecture
    1. 3.1 General considerations
      1. 3.1.1 Volume fraction and weight fraction
      2. 3.1.2 Fibre packing arrangements
      3. 3.1.3 Clustering of fibres and particles
    2. 3.2 Long fibres
      1. 3.2.1 Laminates
      2. 3.2.2 Woven, braided and knitted fibre arrays
      3. 3.2.3 Characterisation of fibre orientations in a plane
    3. 3.3 Short fibres
      1. 3.3.1 Fibre orientation distributions in three dimensions
      2. 3.3.2 Fibre length distributions
    4. 3.4 Voids
    5. 3.5 Fibre orientation during processing
    6. References and further reading
  11. 4. Elastic deformation of long-fibre composites
    1. 4.1 Axial stiffness
    2. 4.2 Transverse stiffness
    3. 4.3 Shear stiffness
    4. 4.4 Poisson contraction effects
    5. References and further reading
  12. 5. Elastic deformation of laminates
    1. 5.1 Elastic deformation of anisotropic materials
      1. 5.1.1 Hooke’s law
      2. 5.1.2 Effects of symmetry
    2. 5.2 Off-axis elastic constants of laminae
      1. 5.2.1 Calculation procedure
      2. 5.2.2 Engineering constants
    3. 5.3 Elastic deformation of laminates
      1. 5.3.1 Loading of a stack of plies
      2. 5.3.2 Predicted behaviour
    4. 5.4 Stresses and distortions
      1. 5.4.1 Balanced laminates
      2. 5.4.2 Stresses in individual plies of a laminate
      3. 5.4.3 Coupling stresses and symmetric laminates
    5. References and further reading
  13. 6. Stresses and strains in short-fibre composites
    1. 6.1 The shear lag model
      1. 6.1.1 Stress and strain distributions
      2. 6.1.2 The stress transfer length
      3. 6.1.3 Transfer of normal stress across fibre ends
      4. 6.1.4 Prediction of stiffness
      5. 6.1.5 Onset of inelastic behaviour
    2. 6.2 The Eshelby method
      1. 6.2.1 A misfitting ellipsoid
      2. 6.2.2 The equivalent homogeneous ellipsoid
      3. 6.2.3 The background stress
      4. 6.2.4 Composite stiffness
    3. References and further reading
  14. 7. The interface region
    1. 7.1 Bonding mechanisms
      1. 7.1.1 Adsorption and wetting
      2. 7.1.2 Interdiffusion and chemical reaction
      3. 7.1.3 Electrostatic attraction
      4. 7.1.4 Mechanical keying
      5. 7.1.5 Residual stresses
    2. 7.2 Experimental measurement of bond strength
      1. 7.2.1 Single-fibre pull-out test
      2. 7.2.2 Single-fibre push-out and push-down tests
      3. 7.2.3 Other tests
    3. 7.3 Control of bond strength
      1. 7.3.1 Coupling agents and environmental effects
      2. 7.3.2 Toughness-reducing coatings
      3. 7.3.3 Interfacial chemical reaction and diffusion barrier coatings
      4. 7.3.4 The interphase region
    4. References and further reading
  15. 8. Strength of composites
    1. 8.1 Failure modes of long-fibre composites
      1. 8.1.1 Axial tensile failure
      2. 8.1.2 Transverse tensile failure
      3. 8.1.3 Shear failure
      4. 8.1.4 Failure in compression
    2. 8.2 Failure of laminae under off-axis loads
      1. 8.2.1 Maximum stress criterion
      2. 8.2.2 Other failure criteria
      3. 8.2.3 Experimental data for single laminae
    3. 8.3 Strength of laminates
      1. 8.3.1 Tensile cracking
      2. 8.3.2 Interlaminar stresses
      3. 8.3.3 Edge effects
    4. 8.4 Failure of tubes under internal pressure
      1. 8.4.1 Pure hoop loading
      2. 8.4.2 Combined hoop and axial loading
      3. 8.4.3 Netting analysis
    5. References and further reading
  16. 9. Toughness of composites
    1. 9.1 Fracture mechanics
      1. 9.1.1 Basic concepts
      2. 9.1.2 Interfacial fracture and crack deflection
    2. 9.2 Contributions to work of fracture
      1. 9.2.1 Matrix deformation
      2. 9.2.2 Fibre fracture
      3. 9.2.3 Interfacial debonding
      4. 9.2.4 Frictional sliding and fibre pull-out
      5. 9.2.5 Effects of microstructure
    3. 9.3 Sub-critical crack growth
      1. 9.3.1 Fatigue
      2. 9.3.2 Stress corrosion cracking
    4. References and further reading
  17. 10. Thermal behaviour of composites
    1. 10.1 Thermal expansion and thermal stresses
      1. 10.1.1 Thermal stresses and strains
      2. 10.1.2 Thermal expansivities
      3. 10.1.3 Thermal cycling of unidirectional composites
      4. 10.1.4 Thermal cycling of laminates
    2. 10.2 Creep
      1. 10.2.1 Basics of matrix and fibre behaviour
      2. 10.2.2 Axial creep of long-fibre composites
      3. 10.2.3 Transverse creep and discontinuously reinforced composites
    3. 10.3 Thermal conduction
      1. 10.3.1 Heat transfer mechanisms
      2. 10.3.2 Conductivity of composites
      3. 10.3.3 Interfacial thermal resistance
    4. References and further reading
  18. 11. Fabrication
    1. 11.1 Polymer composites
      1. 11.1.1 Liquid resin impregnation routes
      2. 11.1.2 Pressurised consolidation of resin pre-pregs
      3. 11.1.3 Consolidation of resin moulding compounds
      4. 11.1.4 Injection moulding of thermoplastics
      5. 11.1.5 Hot press moulding of thermoplastics
    2. 11.2 Metal composites
      1. 11.2.1 Squeeze infiltration
      2. 11.2.2 Stir casting
      3. 11.2.3 Spray deposition
      4. 11.2.4 Powder blending and consolidation
      5. 11.2.5 Diffusion bonding of foils
      6. 11.2.6 Physical vapour deposition (PVD)
    3. 11.3 Ceramic composites
      1. 11.3.1 Powder-based routes
      2. 11.3.2 Reactive processing
      3. 11.3.3 Layered ceramic composites
      4. 11.3.4 Carbon/carbon composites
    4. References and further reading
  19. 12. Applications
    1. 12.1 Minesweeper hull
    2. 12.2 Sheet processing rolls
    3. 12.3 Helicopter rotor blade
    4. 12.4 Golf driving club
    5. 12.5 Racing bicycle
    6. 12.6 Diesel engine piston
    7. 12.7 Microelectronics housing
    8. 12.8 Gas turbine combustor can
    9. 12.9 Aircraft brakes
    10. References and further reading
  20. Appendix Nomenclature
  21. Author index
  22. Subject index