It is well known that the product of two integers is again an integer. That is, if *a* and *b* are integers, then the product *a* X *b* is again an integer. Here, the symbol ‘.’ denotes the ‘operation of taking product’ of *a* and b, in this order. Similarly, if *A* and *B* are two 2 × 2 matrices over the real number system, then the product *A . B* is again a 2 × 2 matrix over ℝ. Here, the symbol ‘ .’ denotes the ‘operation of taking product’ of the matrices *A* and *B*, in this order. Further, if *f* and *g* are two mappings of a set *X* into itself, then the composition *g o f* is also a mapping of *X* into itself. Here, the symbol ‘o’ denotes ...

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