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Alarm Management for Process Control

Book Description

No modern industrial enterprise, particularly in such areas as chemical processing, can operate without a secure, and reliable, network of automated monitors and controls. And those operations need alarm systems to alert engineers and managers the moment anything goes wrong or needs attention. This book, by one of the world's leading experts on industrial alarm systems, will provide A to Z coverage of designing, implementing, and maintaining an effective alarm network.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. About the Author
  6. Content
  7. Figures
  8. Tables
  9. Foreword
  10. Acknowledgments
  11. Credits
  12. Introduction
    1. Not a Handbook
    2. Audience
    3. Usefulness
    4. Contents
    5. Part I: The Alarm Management Problem
    6. Part II: The Alarm Management Solution
    7. Part III: Implementing Alarm Management
  13. Book Deliverables
  14. Important Word
  15. Note
  16. Part 1: The Alarm Management Problem
    1. Chapter 1: Meet Alarm Management
      1. 1.1 Key Concepts
      2. 1.2 Alarm Performance Problems
        1. Symptoms
        2. Evidence
      3. 1.3 Reasons for Alarm Improvement
        1. How Alarms Fit into Process Operating Situation
        2. Alarm Management
        3. Benefits
      4. 1.4 A Brief History of Alarm Management
      5. 1.5 The “Management” in Alarm Management
      6. 1.6 Alarm Design Roadmap
      7. 1.7 Audience for this Book
      8. 1.8 Importance of Alarm Management
      9. 1.9 Fundamentals of Alarm Management
        1. Bottom Line of Alarm Management
        2. Fundamentals
        3. Operator Action
        4. Importance of the Fundamentals
      10. 1.10 Design for Human Limitations
      11. 1.11 Alarm Management and Six Sigma
      12. 1.12 Controls Platforms
        1. PLC versus DCS
        2. PLC Special Considerations
      13. 1.13 Continuous versus Discrete and Batch
      14. 1.14 Application Effect on Alarm Design
      15. 1.15 Time and Dynamics
      16. 1.16 Historical Incidents
        1. Three Mile Island
        2. Milford Haven
        3. Texas City
        4. Why Now?
      17. 1.17 The New Design
        1. Not by Subtraction Alone
        2. Starting Alarm Improvement
        3. Alarm Philosophy
        4. Data Gathering and Analysis
        5. Alarm Conventions and Redesign Guidelines
      18. 1.18 Example Alarm Redesign (Rationalization) Results
      19. 1.19 Completing the Design
        1. Advanced Techniques
        2. Situation Awareness
        3. Operator Screen Design
        4. Operational Integrity Improvement
        5. Condition Monitoring
      20. 1.20 Alarm Improvement Projects
      21. 1.21 Lessons for Successful Alarm Management
      22. 1.22 Important Design and Safety Notice
      23. 1.23 Conclusion
      24. 1.24 Notes and Additional Reading
        1. Notes
        2. Recommended Additional Reading
    2. Chapter 2: Abnormal Situations
      1. 2.1 Key Concepts
      2. 2.2 Introducing Abnormal Situations
        1. Two Scenarios
        2. The Two Sides of Abnormal Situations
      3. 2.3 Observing Abnormal Situations
      4. 2.4 Understanding Abnormal Situations
      5. 2.5 Understanding Incidents
        1. General Concepts Learned
        2. Your Plant Data
      6. 2.6 General Lessons from Incidents
        1. Examination for Cause
        2. Hazards Defined by the FAA
        3. Two Events
      7. 2.7 Critical Contributors to Incidents
        1. Subtle Abnormalities
        2. The Human Nature of Operators
        3. Stop in Time
      8. 2.8 The Importance of Time
        1. An Example
        2. Process Safety Time
        3. SUDA
        4. Alarm Activation Point and Time
      9. 2.9 Why Abnormal Situations Are Important
      10. 2.10 Message of Abnormal Situations
        1. State of Control Loops
        2. The Magic in a Control Loop
        3. Abnormal Situations in Perspective
      11. 2.11 Notes and Additional Reading
        1. Notes
        2. Recommended Additional Reading
    3. Chapter 3: Strategy for Alarm Improvement
      1. 3.1 Key Concepts
      2. 3.2 How We Got Ourselves into Trouble
        1. Controls Technology Evolution
        2. How We Think
        3. The Way Forward
      3. 3.3 The Alarm Management Problem
        1. Symptoms
        2. Root Causes
        3. A Good Alarm
        4. So Many Alarms, So Little Time
        5. Benefits of Rationalization
      4. 3.4 Alarm Activation Path
      5. 3.5 The Geography of Alarm Management
        1. Plant Area Model
        2. Smallest Area of Rationalization
      6. 3.6 Alarm Improvement Teams
        1. Representation
        2. Local Teams
        3. Site Team
        4. Large Corporate Team
      7. 3.7 Alarm Improvement Projects
      8. 3.8 Standards and Regulations Overview
        1. Best Practices Summary
        2. Key Messages
        3. Guides, Standards, and Regulations
      9. 3.9 Proposed Regulations
        1. Department of Transportation (United States)
      10. 3.10 Standards and Guides
        1. EEMUA 191
        2. NAMUR (Germany)
        3. ISA 18
        4. OSHA (United States)
        5. HSE (UK)
        6. EPRI (United States)
        7. Remarks
      11. 3.11 Conclusion
      12. 3.12 Notes and Additional Reading
        1. Notes
        2. Recommended Additional Reading
    4. Chapter 4: Alarm Performance
      1. 4.1 Key Concepts
      2. 4.2 Alarm Problems
      3. 4.3 Alarm Performance Assessment
      4. 4.4 Alarm Metrics and Benchmarks
        1. Why Have Metrics?
        2. Plant Area of Focus—A Single-Operator Area
        3. Basic Configuration Metrics
        4. Basic Activation Metrics
      5. 4.5 Alarm Assessment Tools
        1. Why Use a Tool?
        2. Characteristics of Good Tools
        3. Tool Providers
        4. Getting the Data In
        5. Configuration Data
        6. Activation Data
      6. 4.6 Configuration Analysis
      7. 4.7 Activation Analysis
        1. Activation Analysis across Industrial Segments
        2. Deriving Implications from Activation Analyses
        3. Acknowledgment Ratio
        4. Time to Acknowledge
        5. Time to Clear
        6. Alarm Flood
        7. Chattering and Repeating
        8. Related and Consequential
        9. Standing and Stale
        10. Nuisance Alarms (Bad Actors)
      8. 4.8 Advanced Activation Analysis
      9. 4.9. Alarm Correlation Analyses
        1. Situations
        2. General Comments
      10. 4.10 One Day in the Life of an Alarm System—Configuration
        1. Number of Tags and Tags with Alarms
        2. Number of Alarms by Alarm Type
        3. Priority of Configured Alarms
        4. Duplicate Alarms
      11. 4.11 One Day in the Life of an Alarm System—Activation
        1. The Raw Data
        2. Amount of Data Produced in One Day
        3. Alarm Activations
        4. Time in Alarm
        5. Time to Acknowledge
        6. Operator Actions
      12. 4.12 Alarm System Performance Levels
      13. 4.13 Conclusion
      14. 4.14 Notes and Additional Reading
        1. Notes
        2. Recommended Additional Reading
  17. Part 2: The Alarm Management Solution
    1. Chapter 5: Permission to Operate
      1. 5.1 Key Concepts
      2. 5.2 Management’s Role
      3. 5.3 Operating Situations
        1. Operating in Uncertainty
        2. Unique Events
        3. Explosive Events
        4. Definitions
      4. 5.4 How Permission to Operate Came to Be
      5. 5.5 How Permission to Operate Works
      6. 5.6 Permission to Operate
      7. 5.7 Alternative Methods for Granting Permission
        1. De Facto Decisions
        2. Operating Modality Decisions
      8. 5.8 Managing the Operator’s Permission
        1. Qualifying Abnormal
        2. No Help at Hand
        3. Observer Evaluation
        4. Operator Evaluation
        5. Putting It All Together
      9. 5.9 Shut Down and Safe Park
        1. Operator-Initiated Shutdown
        2. Automated Shutdown
        3. Safe Park
      10. 5.10 Special Technology
        1. Detection and Warning of Abnormal Conditions
        2. Conditions Related to the Plant
        3. Conditions Related to the Operator
      11. 5.11 Operator Redeployment
      12. 5.12 Process Complexity
        1. Linearly Related Complexity
        2. Integrated/Complex Related
      13. 5.13 Training and Skills
        1. Industrial Manufacturing
        2. Military Training
      14. 5.14 Other Key Principles of Operation
        1. Additional Operating Principles
        2. Field Principles
        3. Safety System Principles
        4. Design and Inspection Principles
        5. Management Principles
      15. 5.15 What Is Being Done by Others
        1. Technology in Development
      16. 5.16 Conclusion
      17. 5.17 Notes
    2. Chapter 6: Alarm Philosophy
      1. 6.1 Key Concepts
      2. 6.2 Caveats
        1. A Foundation Is at the Bottom
        2. Owner versus Designer
        3. Reliance on Philosophy
        4. Completeness
      3. 6.3 Getting Started
        1. Operator Survey
        2. Advice to the Reader on Timing of This Topic
      4. 6.4 Special Alarm Issues
        1. Types of Alarms and Their Recommended Use
        2. Smart Field Devices
        3. Light Boxes
        4. Special Cases of Redundant Alarms
        5. About Alerts
        6. Classes of Alarms
      5. 6.5 Overview of Alarm Philosophy
        1. Philosophy 101
        2. Operator-Centric Items
        3. Plant-Centric Items
        4. Alarm System Purpose
        5. Philosophy Intent
        6. Elements in the Philosophy
      6. 6.6 Alarm Priority
        1. Priority Levels
        2. Priority Names
        3. Humorous Illustration of Priority
        4. Consequence and Severity
        5. Urgency
        6. Priority Assignment
        7. Alarm Priority Assignment Setup Review
      7. 6.7 Enterprise Philosophy Framework
        1. Overview
        2. Framework Philosophy Document
        3. At the Enterprise Level
        4. Factoring It All into the Philosophy
      8. 6.8 Site-Level Philosophy
        1. Site Personality
        2. The Rest of the “Bases”
      9. 6.9 Alarm Design Principles
        1. Fundamental Principles
        2. Functional Principles
        3. Key Performance Indicators
        4. Critical Success Factors
        5. Approved Management of Change Requirements
        6. Procedure for Rationalization
        7. Alarm Configuration: Specific Issues
        8. Alarm Activation Point Determination
        9. Priority Assignment
        10. Alarm Presentation
        11. Operator Roles
        12. Interplay with Procedures
        13. Training
        14. Escalation
        15. Maintenance
      10. 6.10 Example Procedure: To Silence or to Acknowledge
      11. 6.11 Philosophy Hit List
      12. 6.12 Alarm Philosophy Workshop
        1. Workshop Details
        2. Facilitation
        3. Preparation
      13. 6.13 Enterprise Philosophy Framework
      14. 6.14 Conclusion
      15. 6.15 Notes
    3. Chapter 7: Rationalization
      1. 7.1 Key Concepts
      2. 7.2 Introduction
        1. Basic Approaches
        2. Cornerstone Concepts of Alarm Management
      3. 7.3 About the Word “Rationalization”
      4. 7.4 Checklist
      5. 7.5 Getting Ready to Rationalize
        1. Housekeeping
        2. Bad Actors
        3. Filters and Deadbands
        4. The Data
        5. Alarm Documentation and Rationalization Tools
        6. Rationalization Is Not Just About Numbers
      6. 7.6 Alarm Response Manual
        1. Header Information
        2. Configuration Data
        3. Causes
        4. Confirmatory Actions
        5. Consequences of Not Acting
        6. Automatic Actions
        7. Manual Corrective Actions
        8. Safety-Related Testing Requirements
        9. Example Online Alarm Response Sheet
        10. Additional Items
      7. 7.7 Rationalization Methods
        1. Alarms Are Not the Important Part
        2. Rationalization Approaches
        3. “Starting from Where You Are” Rationalization
        4. “Starting from Zero” Rationalization
      8. 7.8 Required Alarms and Common Elements
        1. Required Alarms
        2. Common Elements
      9. 7.9 “Starting from Where You Are” Rationalization
        1. Work Process
      10. 7.10 “Starting from Zero” Rationalization
        1. Work Process
        2. Wrap-Up
      11. 7.11 Only Four Alarms
      12. 7.12 Identifying Subsystem Boundaries
        1. Decomposition
      13. 7.13 “Starting from Zero” Examples
        1. Furnace
        2. Heat Exchanger
      14. 7.14 Working Through the Database
        1. Method of Flows
        2. Method of Elements
        3. Choosing a Method
      15. 7.15 The Alarm Activation Point
        1. Alarm Activation Point Determination
        2. A Digression in Setting Alarm Activation Points
        3. The Limit of Alarm Limits
        4. Generalizing Alarm Activation Point Calculations
        5. Too Much Time; Just Enough Time
        6. Alarm “Pick-Up” Order
      16. 7.16 Determining Alarm Priority
        1. Assigning Priority
        2. Calibrating the Alarm Priority Assignment Process
        3. Nonweighted Maximum Severity with Urgency Direct to Priority
      17. 7.17 Alarm Priority Assignment Examples
        1. Sum of All Severities
        2. Sum of All Severities Weighted by Urgency
        3. Maximum Severity
        4. Urgency Only
        5. Maximum Severity Weighted by Urgency
        6. Summary of Examples
      18. 7.18 Rationalization Working Sessions
        1. Teams
        2. Participant Preparation
        3. Work Areas
        4. Work Sessions
        5. Events Schedule
      19. 7.19 Partial Rationalizations
        1. Concepts and Experience
        2. Bad Actors
        3. Rationalize Only Important Parts of the Operator’s Area
        4. Rationalize Only Alarms that Activate
        5. Bottom Line
      20. 7.20 Conclusion
      21. 7.21 Notes and Additional Reading
        1. Notes
        2. Recommended Additional Reading
    4. Chapter 8: Enhanced Alarm Methods
      1. 8.1 Key Concepts
      2. 8.2 Beginning
      3. 8.3 The Situation
      4. 8.4 Safety Notice
        1. Operator Awareness
        2. Monitoring
        3. Unsafe Operations
      5. 8.5 Enhanced Alarm Functions
      6. 8.6 Enhanced Alarm Infrastructure
        1. General Considerations
        2. Alarm Processors
        3. Basic Infrastructure
        4. Enhanced Infrastructure
        5. Alarm Integrity Monitoring
      7. 8.7 Operator Consent
        1. Implement Automatically
        2. Implement Unless Cancelled
        3. Suggest with Positive Response Required
        4. Suggest Only
      8. 8.8 Operator-Controlled Suppression Techniques
      9. 8.9 Preconfigured, Simplified Suppression Techniques
      10. 8.10 Informative Assistance
        1. When Informative Assistance Is Useful
        2. How to Do It
        3. Examples
        4. More Examples
      11. 8.11 Knowledge-Based
        1. Pattern Recognition
        2. Neural Networks
        3. Fuzzy Logic
        4. Knowledge-Based Reasoning
        5. Model-Based Reasoning
      12. 8.12 Keeping Track of Plant State
        1. Explicit Plant States
        2. Implicit Plant States
      13. 8.13 Alarm Information without Alarm Activation
        1. Plant Area Model
        2. Conditional Alarming Facilitators
      14. 8.14 Alarm Activation Permissions
        1. Category I Alarms
        2. Category II Alarms
        3. Category III Alarms
      15. 8.15 Conclusion
      16. 8.16 Notes and Additional Reading
        1. Notes
        2. Recommended Additional Reading
  18. Part 3: Implementing Alarm Management
    1. Chapter 9: Implementation
      1. 9.1 Key Concepts
      2. 9.2 Beginning
      3. 9.3 Implementation Steps
        1. Approvals
        2. Configuration
        3. Enhanced Alarm Features
        4. Process Graphics and Other Displays
        5. Procedures
        6. Training
        7. Documentation
        8. Infrastructure
        9. Operability Review
        10. Final Approval
      4. 9.4 Implementation
        1. Simulators and Training
        2. Cutover and Testing
        3. Moving On
      5. 9.5 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 10: Life Cycle Management
      1. 10.1 Key Concepts
      2. 10.2 Assess Alarm Performance
        1. Initial Assessment
        2. Periodic Assessment
        3. Timing of Assessments
        4. Collection of Data
        5. Every Alarm Activation Points to Opportunity
      3. 10.3 Interpretation of Periodic Assessments
        1. Evaluate
        2. Look for Added Benefits
        3. Modify and Repair
        4. Monitor and Enforce
        5. Nuisance Alarms
        6. Alarm Creep
        7. Adding and Removing Alarms
      4. 10.4 Advanced Interpretation of Periodic Assessments
        1. Nomenclature and Design
        2. Value
        3. Cases
      5. 10.5 Statistical Process Control and Alarm Management
        1. Background
        2. Relevance to Alarm Management
        3. Guidance
      6. 10.6 Enforcement
        1. Enforcement by Shift
        2. Periodic Enforcement
        3. Aperiodic Enforcement
      7. 10.7 Notes
    3. Chapter 11: Project Development
      1. 11.1 Key Concepts
      2. 11.2 The Fit of Alarm Improvement
      3. 11.3 The Business Case
        1. Percentage of Daily Losses
        2. Direct Calculation
        3. Negotiation
        4. Bottom Line
      4. 11.4 Project Design Approaches
        1. Alarm Improvement by Starting from Where You Are
        2. Alarm Improvement by Starting from Zero
        3. Usefulness of Stages
      5. 11.5 Project Construction Alternatives
        1. Sitewide, Comprehensive
        2. Sitewide, Staged
        3. Sitewide, Unit-by-Unit, Comprehensive
        4. Review
      6. 11.6 Why Some Projects Fail
      7. 11.7 “Low-Hanging” Fruit
      8. 11.8 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 12: Situation Awareness
      1. 12.1 Key Concepts
      2. 12.2 Operator Support Needs
        1. The Hat
        2. The Disaster Chain
        3. Need for Situation Awareness
        4. Visualizations
      3. 12.3 The Deviation Diagram
      4. 12.4 User-Centered Design—Human Factors
        1. Human Factors Details
        2. Environment
        3. Scaling
        4. Compensation
        5. Understandability
        6. Implementability
        7. Unified Feel
      5. 12.5 Our Biological Clock
      6. 12.6 Other Operator Support Issues
        1. Intent Recognition
        2. Operator Vigilance
        3. To Push or to Pull
      7. 12.7 Operator Displays
        1. Physical Display Architecture
        2. Modern Displays
        3. Hierarchical Display Architecture
        4. The Overview Level
        5. The Secondary Level
        6. The Tertiary Level
      8. 12.8 Navigation
      9. 12.9 Notifications Instead of Alarms
      10. 12.10 Perception Problems with Video Displays
        1. Relationships and Size
        2. Coding Conflicts
        3. Color
        4. Comments
      11. 12.11 New Operator Display Design
        1. Coding Schemes and Icons
        2. Overview Level
        3. Secondary Level
        4. Tertiary Level
        5. Do ASM-Style Displays Work?
      12. 12.12 Wrap-Up
      13. 12.13 Notes and Additional Reading
        1. Notes
        2. Recommended Additional Reading
  19. Appendix 1: Definitions of Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms
  20. Appendix 2: Twenty-Four Hours of Alarms
  21. Appendix 3: Operator Alarm Usefulness Questionnaire
    1. A3.1 Operator Alarm Usefulness Questionnaire
      1. Explanation
      2. Purpose
      3. General Instructions
      4. Confidentiality
      5. Surveyors
      6. Additional Information If You Have Questions
      7. Where Questionnaire Is to Be Returned
    2. Operator Alarm Usefulness Questionnaire
      1. Normal Steady Operation
      2. Plant Faults and Trips
      3. General
    3. A3.2 Quiet Period Alarm Usefulness Questionnaire
      1. Explanation
      2. Instructions
      3. Column Definitions
      4. Survey Data Table
      5. Summary
  22. Appendix 4: Alarm Philosophy from Honeywell European Users
  23. Appendix 5: Overview of Alarm Management for Process Control
    1. A5.1 The Chapters
      1. Part I: The Alarm Management Problem
      2. Part II: The Alarm Management Solution
      3. Part III: Implementing Alarm Management
  24. Appendix 6: Alarm Response Sheet
  25. Appendix 7: Metrics and Key Performance Indicators
    1. Part I: Recommended Requirements for Analysis Tools
      1. A7.1 Purpose
      2. A7.2 Background
      3. A7.3 Analysis Types
      4. A7.4 Queries
      5. A7.5 Alarm Remediation Analyses
      6. A7.6 Tools and Key Features
    2. Part II: Metrics
      1. A7.7 Introduction
      2. A7.8 Static (Configuration) Metrics
      3. A7.9 Dynamic (Activation) Metrics
  26. Appendix 8: Alarm Management Pioneers
    1. A8.1 Opening Notes
      1. Father of Modern Alarm Management
    2. A8.2 Alarm Management Taskforce
      1. Pioneering Members
      2. Objectives for Work
    3. A8.3 Abnormal Situation Management Consortium
      1. Key Players
      2. Objectives for Work
    4. A8.4 Additional Credits
      1. Standards and Practice Organizations
      2. Trainers and Consultants
      3. Services Providers
      4. Technology Providers
      5. Industrial Controls Providers
      6. Personalities at Large
    5. A8.5 Note
  27. Appendix 9: Qualitative Risk Method for Priority Assignment
    1. Acknowledgment
    2. A9.1 Qualitative Risk
    3. A9.2 Porter’s Discussion on the Rationales for the Qualitative Risk Matrix for Alarm Prioritization
      1. Goal
      2. Scope
    4. A9.3 Description of Matrix
      1. Probability Axis
      2. Severity Axis
    5. A9.4 Definition of Priorities
  28. Appendix 10: Manufacturing Modalities and Alarm Management
    1. A10.1 Introduction
    2. A10.2 Characteristics of Manufacturing Modalities
    3. A10.3 Comparison Matrix
  29. Appendix 11: Notifications Management
    1. A11.1 Introduction
    2. A11.2 Points to Consider
    3. A11.3 Questions and Issues
  30. Index