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Aircraft Propulsion, 2nd Edition

Book Description

New edition of the successful textbook updated to include new material on UAVs, design guidelines in aircraft engine component systems and additional end of chapter problems

Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition follows the successful first edition textbook with comprehensive treatment of the subjects in airbreathing propulsion, from the basic principles to more advanced treatments in engine components and system integration.

This new edition has been extensively updated to include a number of new and important topics. A chapter is now included on General Aviation and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Propulsion Systems that includes a discussion on electric and hybrid propulsion. Propeller theory is added to the presentation of turboprop engines. A new section in cycle analysis treats Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) and Geared Turbofan engines. New material on drop-in biofuels and design for sustainability is added to refl ect the FAA's 2025 Vision.

In addition, the design guidelines in aircraft engine components are expanded to make the book user friendly for engine designers. Extensive review material and derivations are included to help the reader navigate through the subject with ease.

Key features:

  • General Aviation and UAV Propulsion Systems are presented in a new chapter

  • Discusses Ultra-High Bypass and Geared Turbofan engines

  • Presents alternative drop-in jet fuels

  • Expands on engine components' design guidelines

  • The end-of-chapter problem sets have been increased by nearly 50% and solutions are available on a companion website

  • Presents a new section on engine performance testing and instrumentation

  • Includes a new 10-Minute Quiz appendix (with 45 quizzes) that can be used as a continuous assessment and improvement tool in teaching/learning propulsion principles and concepts

  • Includes a new appendix on Rules of Thumb and Trends in aircraft propulsion

  • Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for graduate and undergraduate students, and is also an excellent source of information for researchers and practitioners in the aerospace and power industry.

    Table of Contents

      1. Acknowledgments
      1. Intended Audience
      2. Motivation
      3. Mathematical Level
      4. Chapter Organization and Topical Coverage
      5. Instructor Resources
      6. Acknowledgments
      1. 1.1 History of the Airbreathing Jet Engine, a Twentieth-Century Invention—The Beginning
      2. 1.2 Innovations in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines
      3. 1.3 New Engine Concepts
      4. 1.4 New Vehicles
      5. 1.5 Summary
      6. 1.6 Roadmap for the Second Edition
      7. References
      8. Problems
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 A Brief Review of Thermodynamics
      3. 2.3 Isentropic Process and Isentropic Flow
      4. 2.4 Conservation Principles for Systems and Control Volumes
      5. 2.5 Speed of Sound & Mach Number
      6. 2.6 Stagnation State
      7. 2.7 Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow
      8. 2.8 Area–Mach Number Relationship
      9. 2.9 Sonic Throat
      10. 2.10 Waves in Supersonic Flow
      11. 2.11 Normal Shocks
      12. 2.12 Oblique Shocks
      13. 2.13 Conical Shocks
      14. 2.14 Expansion Waves
      15. 2.15 Frictionless, Constant-Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer
      16. 2.16 Adiabatic Flow of a Calorically Perfect Gas in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction
      17. 2.17 Friction (Drag) Coefficient <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">C</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">f</sub> and D&#8217;Arcy Friction Factor and D’Arcy Friction Factor <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">f</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">D</sub>
      18. 2.18 Dimensionless Parameters
      19. 2.19 Fluid Impulse
      20. 2.20 Summary of Fluid Impulse
      21. References
      22. Problems
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Installed Thrust—Some Bookkeeping Issues on Thrust and Drag
      3. 3.3 Engine Thrust Based on the Sum of Component Impulse
      4. 3.4 Rocket Thrust
      5. 3.5 Airbreathing Engine Performance Parameters
      6. 3.6 Modern Engines, Their Architecture and Some Performance Characteristics
      7. 3.7 Summary
      8. References
      9. Problems
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 The Gas Generator
      3. 4.3 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines
      4. 4.4 Analysis of a Mixed-Exhaust Turbofan Engine with an Afterburner
      5. 4.5 The Turboprop Engine
      6. 4.6 Summary
      7. References
      8. Problems
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Cycle Analysis
      3. 5.3 Power and Efficiency
      4. 5.4 Engine Components and Classifications
      5. 5.5 Scaling of Aircraft Reciprocating Engines
      6. 5.6 Aircraft Engine Systems
      7. 5.7 Electric Engines
      8. 5.8 Propellers and Reduction Gears
      9. References
      10. Problems
      11. Notes
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 The Flight Mach Number and Its Impact on Inlet Duct Geometry
      3. 6.3 Diffusers
      4. 6.4 An Ideal Diffuser
      5. 6.5 Real Diffusers and Their Stall Characteristics
      6. 6.6 Subsonic Diffuser Performance
      7. 6.7 Subsonic Cruise Inlet
      8. 6.8 Transition Ducts
      9. 6.9 An Interim Summary for Subsonic Inlets
      10. 6.10 Supersonic Inlets
      11. 6.11 Normal Shock Inlets
      12. 6.12 External Compression Inlets
      13. 6.13 Variable Geometry—External Compression Inlets
      14. 6.14 Mixed-Compression Inlets
      15. 6.15 Supersonic Inlet Types and Their Performance—A Review
      16. 6.16 Standards for Supersonic Inlet Recovery
      17. 6.17 Exhaust Nozzle
      18. 6.18 Gross Thrust
      19. 6.19 Nozzle Adiabatic Efficiency
      20. 6.20 Nozzle Total Pressure Ratio
      21. 6.21 Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR) and Critical Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">crit.</sub>))
      22. 6.22 Relation Between Nozzle Figures of Merit, <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#951;</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">n</sub> and and <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#960;</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">n</sub>
      23. 6.23 A Convergent Nozzle or a De Laval?
      24. 6.24 The Effect of Boundary Layer Formation on Nozzle Internal Performance
      25. 6.25 Nozzle Exit Flow Velocity Coefficient
      26. 6.26 Effect of Flow Angularity on Gross Thrust
      27. 6.27 Nozzle Gross Thrust Coefficient C<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">fg</sub>
      28. 6.28 Overexpanded Nozzle Flow—Shock Losses
      29. 6.29 Nozzle Area Scheduling, <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">A</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">8</sub> and and <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">A</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">9</sub>//<i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">A</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">8</sub>
      30. 6.30 Nozzle Exit Area Scheduling, <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">A</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">9</sub>//<i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">A</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">8</sub>
      31. 6.31 Nozzle Cooling
      32. 6.32 Thrust Reverser and Thrust Vectoring
      33. 6.33 Hypersonic Nozzle
      34. 6.34 Exhaust Mixer and Gross Thrust Gain in a Mixed-Flow Turbofan Engine
      35. 6.35 Noise
      36. 6.36 Nozzle-Turbine (Structural) Integration
      37. 6.37 Summary of Exhaust Systems
      38. References
      39. Problems
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Laws Governing Mixture of Gases
      3. 7.3 Chemical Reaction and Flame Temperature
      4. 7.4 Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical Composition
      5. 7.5 Chemical Kinetics
      6. 7.6 Combustion Chamber
      7. 7.7 Combustion-Generated Pollutants
      8. 7.8 Aviation Fuels
      9. 7.9 Alternative “Drop-In” Jet Fuels (AJFs)
      10. 7.10 Combustion Instability: Screech and Rumble
      11. 7.11 Summary
      12. References
      13. Problems
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 The Geometry
      3. 8.3 Rotor and Stator Frames of Reference
      4. 8.4 The Euler Turbine Equation
      5. 8.5 Axial-Flow Versus Radial-Flow Machines
      6. 8.6 Axial-Flow Compressors and Fans
      7. 8.7 Compressor Performance Map
      8. 8.8 Compressor Instability – Stall and Surge
      9. 8.9 Multistage Compressors and Their Operating Line
      10. 8.10 Multistage Compressor Stalling Pressure Rise and Stall Margin
      11. 8.11 Multistage Compressor Starting Problem
      12. 8.12 The Effect of Inlet Flow Condition on Compressor Performance
      13. 8.13 Isometric and Cutaway Views of Axial-Flow Compressor Hardware
      14. 8.14 Compressor Design Parameters and Principles
      15. 8.15 Summary
      16. References
      17. Problems
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Centrifugal Compressors
      3. 9.3 Radial Diffuser
      4. 9.4 Inducer
      5. 9.5 Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) and Inducer-Less Impellers
      6. 9.6 Impeller Exit Flow and Blockage Effects
      7. 9.7 Efficiency and Performance
      8. 9.8 Summary
      9. References
      10. Problems
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Axial-Flow Turbines
      3. 10.3 Turbine Performance Map
      4. 10.4 The Effect of Cooling on Turbine Efficiency
      5. 10.5 Turbine Blade Profile Design
      6. 10.6 Stresses in Turbine Blades and Disks and Useful Life Estimation
      7. 10.7 Axial-Flow Turbine Design and Practices
      8. 10.8 Gas Turbine Design Summary
      9. 10.9 Summary
      10. References
      11. Problems
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Engine (Steady-State) Component Matching
      3. 11.3 Engine Off-Design Analysis
      4. 11.4 Unchoked Nozzles and Other Off-Design Iteration Strategies
      5. 11.5 Principles of Engine Performance Testing
      6. 11.6 Summary
      7. References
      8. Problems
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 From Takeoff to Earth Orbit
      3. 12.3 Chemical Rockets
      4. 12.4 Chemical Rocket Applications
      5. 12.5 New Parameters in Rocket Propulsion
      6. 12.6 Thrust Coefficient, <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">C</i><sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">F</sub>
      7. 12.7 Characteristic Velocity, <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">c</i><sup xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">*</sup>
      8. 12.8 Flight Performance
      9. 12.9 Multistage Rockets
      10. 12.10 Propulsive and Overall Efficiencies
      11. 12.11 Chemical Rocket Combustion Chamber
      12. 12.12 Thrust Chamber Cooling
      13. 12.13 Combustor Volume and Shape
      14. 12.14 Rocket Nozzles
      15. 12.15 High-Speed Airbreathing Engines
      16. 12.16 Rocket-Based Airbreathing Propulsion
      17. 12.17 Summary
      18. References
      19. Problems
    1. A. U.S. Standard Atmosphere
      1. U.S. Standard Atmosphere U.S. Units
      2. U.S. Standard Atmosphere SI Units
    2. B. Isentropic Table
      1. Isentropic Table <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.4 = 1.4
      2. Isentropic Table <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.3 = 1.3
    3. C. Normal Shock Table
      1. Normal Shock Table <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.4 = 1.4
      2. Normal Shock Table <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.3 = 1.3
    4. D. Rayleigh Flow
      1. Rayleigh Flow <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.4 = 1.4
      2. Rayleigh Flow <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.3 = 1.3
    5. E. Fanno Flow
      1. Fanno Flow <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.4 = 1.4
      2. Fanno Flow <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#947;</i> = 1.3 = 1.3
    6. F. Prandtl–Meyer Function and Mach Angle
    7. G. Oblique Shock Charts
      1. Oblique Shock Charts γ = 1.4
    8. H. Conical Shock Charts
      1. Conical Shock Charts γ = 1.4
    9. I. Cascade Data
      1. NACA-65 Series Cascade Data
      2. Cascade Data
    10. J. Websites
    11. K. 10-Minute Quiz: Closed books and notes
      1. Quiz No. 1
      2. Quiz No. 2
      3. Quiz No. 3
      4. Quiz No. 4
      5. Quiz No. 5
      6. Quiz No. 6
      7. Quiz No. 7
      8. Quiz No. 8
      9. Quiz No. 9
      10. Quiz No. 10
      11. Quiz No. 11
      12. Quiz No. 12
      13. Quiz No. 13
      14. Quiz No. 14
      15. Quiz No. 15
      16. Quiz No. 16
      17. Quiz No. 17
      18. Quiz No. 18
      19. Quiz No. 19
      20. Quiz No. 20
      21. Quiz No. 21
      22. Quiz No. 22
      23. Quiz No. 23
      24. Quiz No. 24
      25. Quiz No. 25
      26. Quiz No. 26
      27. Quiz No. 27
      28. Quiz No. 28
      29. Quiz No. 29
      30. Quiz No. 30
      31. Quiz No. 31
      32. Quiz No. 32
      33. Quiz No. 33
      34. Quiz No. 34
      35. Quiz No. 35
      36. Quiz No. 36
      37. Quiz No. 37
      38. Quiz No. 38
      39. Quiz No. 39
      40. Quiz No. 40
      41. Quiz No. 41
      42. Quiz No. 42
      43. Quiz No. 43
      44. Quiz No. 44
      45. Quiz No. 45
    12. L. Some “<i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">Rules of Thumb</i>&#8221; and ” and <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">Trends</i> in Aircraft Propulsion in Aircraft Propulsion
    13. Index
    14. End User License Agreement