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Aerosol Science: Technology and Applications by Ian Colbeck, Mihalis Lazaridis

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Chapter 13

The Safety of Emerging Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials

L. Reijnders

IBED, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

13.1 Introduction

Nanomaterials or nanoparticles are often defined as having a diameter < 100 nm in at least one dimension (Fubini, Ghiazza, and Fenoglio, 2010; Oberdörster, 2010; Cushen et al., 2011; Maynard, Warheit, and Philbert, 2011). Such nanomaterials may have a natural origin, as exemplified by nanoparticulate mercuric sulfides (Zhang et al., 2012). They may be present in conventional materials, such as carbon black and the paint additives calcium carbonate and talc, and in emissions from fuel combustion (Kunzli, 2011; Reijnders, 2012, van Broekhuizen et al., 2012). They may also be generated from conventional materials under ambient conditions, as exemplified by the generation of Cu and Ag nanoparticles from silver and copper objects exposed to liquid water or humidity (Glover, Miller, and Hutchison, 2011). Nanoparticles may furthermore originate in welding (Dasch and D'Arcy, 2008). Wear, tear, and processing of conventional materials can also lead to nanoparticle release. For instance, operating electromotors can release Cu nanoparticles and diamond processing can give rise to the generation of carbon nanoparticles (Scymczak, Menzela, and Kecka, 2007; Beniwal and Shivgotra, 2009).

Inorganic and carbonaceous nanoparticles are also increasingly being engineered for a variety of applications. These are the emerging nanomaterials, of which persistent ...

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