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Aerosol Science: Technology and Applications

Book Description

Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments.

However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion.

Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes:

  • Satellite aerosol remote sensing

  • The effects of aerosols on climate change

  • Air pollution and health

  • Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery

  • Bioaerosols and hospital infections

  • Particle emissions from vehicles

  • The safety of emerging nanomaterials

  • Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes

  • With the importance of this topic brought to the public's attention after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallaj√∂kull, this book provides a timely, concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. List of Contributors
    5. Preface
    6. Chapter 1: Introduction
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Size and Shape
      3. 1.3 Size Distribution
      4. 1.4 Chemical Composition
      5. 1.5 Measurements and Sampling
      6. References
    7. Chapter 2: Aerosol Dynamics
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 General Dynamic Equation
      3. 2.3 Nucleation: New Particle Formation
      4. 2.4 Growth by Condensation
      5. 2.5 Coagulation and Agglomeration
      6. 2.6 Deposition Mechanisms
      7. 2.7 Resuspension
      8. References
    8. Chapter 3: Recommendations for Aerosol Sampling
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Guidelines for Standardized Aerosol Sampling
      3. 3.3 Concrete Sampling Configurations
      4. 3.4 Artifact-Free Sampling for Organic Carbon Analysis
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
    9. Chapter 4: Aerosol Instrumentation
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 General Strategy
      3. 4.3 Aerosol Sampling Inlets and Transport
      4. 4.4 Integral Moment Measurement
      5. 4.5 Particle Surface Area Measurement
      6. 4.6 Size-Distribution Measurement
      7. 4.7 Chemical Composition Measurement
      8. 4.8 Conclusion
      9. References
    10. Chapter 5: Filtration Mechanisms
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Deposition Mechanisms
      3. 5.3 Factors Affecting Efficiency
      4. 5.4 Filter Randomness
      5. 5.5 Applications
      6. 5.6 Conclusions
      7. Nomenclature
      8. References
    11. Chapter 6: Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Surface-Based Remote Sensing
      3. 6.3 Satellite-Based Remote Sensing
      4. 6.4 Summary and Future Requirements
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
    12. Chapter 7: Atmospheric Particle Nucleation
      1. 7.1 General Relevance
      2. 7.2 Detection of Atmospheric Nanoparticles
      3. 7.3 Atmospheric Observations of New Particle Formation
      4. 7.4 Laboratory Experiments
      5. 7.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Challenges
      6. References
    13. Chapter 8: Atmospheric Aerosols and Climate Impacts
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Global Aerosol Distributions
      3. 8.3 Aerosol Climate Impacts
      4. 8.4 Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions
      5. 8.5 Extinction of Radiation by Aerosols (Direct Effect)
      6. 8.6 Aerosols and Clouds (Indirect Effect)
      7. 8.7 Radiative Forcing Estimates
      8. 8.8 The Way Forward
      9. References
    14. Chapter 9: Air Pollution and Health and the Role of Aerosols
      1. 9.1 Background
      2. 9.2 Size Fractions
      3. 9.3 Which Pollution Particle Sizes Are Important?
      4. 9.4 What Health Outcomes Are Associated with Exposure to Air Pollution?
      5. 9.5 Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols
      6. 9.6 Particle Deposition in the Lungs
      7. 9.7 Aerosol Interaction Mechanisms in the Human Body
      8. 9.8 Human Respiratory Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure
      9. 9.9 Cardiovascular Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure
      10. 9.10 Conclusions and Recommendations
      11. References
    15. Chapter 10: Pharmaceutical Aerosols and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Pharmaceutical Aerosols in Disease Treatment
      3. 10.3 Aerosol Physicochemical Properties of Importance in Lung Deposition
      4. 10.4 The Fate of Inhaled Aerosol Particles in the Lung
      5. 10.5 Production of Inhalable Particles
      6. 10.6 Aerosol Generation and Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Therapy
      7. 10.7 Product Performance Testing
      8. 10.8 Conclusion and Outlook
      9. References
    16. Chapter 11: Bioaerosols and Hospital Infections
      1. 11.1 The Importance of Bioaerosols and Infections
      2. 11.2 Bioaerosol-Related Infections in Hospitals
      3. 11.3 Bioaerosol Properties and Deposition in Human Respiratory Systems
      4. 11.4 Chain of Infection and Infection Control in Hospitals
      5. 11.5 Application of Aerosol Science and Technology in Infection Control
      6. 11.6 Conclusion
      7. References
    17. Chapter 12: Nanostructured Material Synthesis in the Gas Phase
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Aerosol-Based Synthesis
      3. 12.3 Flame Synthesis
      4. 12.4 Flame and Laser Synthesis
      5. 12.5 Laser-Induced Synthesis
      6. 12.6 Metal-Powder Combustion
      7. 12.7 Spark Discharge
      8. 12.8 Assembling Useful Nanostructures
      9. 12.9 Conclusions
      10. References
    18. Chapter 13: The Safety of Emerging Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Human Health and Inhaled Persistent Engineered Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials
      3. 13.3 Human Health Hazards and Risks Linked to the Ingestion of Persistent Inorganic Nanomaterials
      4. 13.4 Ecotoxicity of Persistent Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials
      5. 13.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    19. Chapter 14: Environmental Health in Built Environments
      1. 14.1 Environmental Hazards and Built Environments
      2. 14.2 Particulate Contaminants
      3. 14.3 Gas Contaminants
      4. References
    20. Chapter 15: Particle Emissions from Vehicles
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Engine Concepts and Technologies
      3. 15.3 Particle Formation
      4. 15.4 Impact of Vehicle Particle Emissions
      5. 15.5 Sampling and Measurement Techniques
      6. 15.6 Amelioration Techniques
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    21. Chapter 16: Movement of Bioaerosols in the Atmosphere and the Consequences for Climate and Microbial Evolution
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.2 Emission: Launch into the Atmosphere
      3. 16.3 Transport in the Earth's Boundary Layer
      4. 16.4 Long-Distance Transport: From the Boundary Layer into the Free Troposphere
      5. 16.5 Interaction of Microbial Aerosols with Atmospheric Processes
      6. 16.6 Implications of Aerial Transport for Microbial Evolutionary History
      7. References
    22. Chapter 17: Disinfection of Airborne Organisms by Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Sunlight
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 UV Radiation
      3. 17.3 Sunlight
      4. 17.4 Selected Organisms
      5. 17.5 Effects of UV Light on Aerosolized Organisms
      6. 17.6 Disinfection of Rooms Using UV-C Radiation
      7. 17.7 Sunlight Exposure Studies
      8. 17.8 Testing Considerations
      9. 17.9 Discussion
      10. References
    23. Chapter 18: Radioactive Aerosols: Tracers of Atmospheric Processes
      1. 18.1 Introduction
      2. 18.2 Origin of Radioactive Aerosols
      3. 18.3 Tracers of Atmospheric Processes
      4. 18.4 Tracer of Environmental Change
      5. 18.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    24. Index