You are previewing Advances in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: Developments and Challenges.
O'Reilly logo
Advances in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: Developments and Challenges

Book Description

Advances in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: Developments and Challenges tackles the prevalent research challenges that hinder a fully deployable vehicular network. This unique reference presents a unified treatment of the various aspects of VANETs and is essential for not only university professors, but also for researchers working in the automobile industry.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
    1. SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORKS (VANETs)
    2. SECTION 2: APPLICATIONS OF VANETs
    3. SECTION 3: COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS IN VANETs
    4. SECTION 4: GENERAL RESEARCH CHALLENGES IN VANETs
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. 1. Introduction to Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANETs)
    1. 1. Infrastructures in Vehicular Communications: Status, Challenges and Perspectives
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. I. INTRODUCTION
      3. II. BACKGROUND
        1. A) Radio Frequency Spectrum in Vehicular Communications
        2. B) Applications of Vehicular Communication and Their Requirements
        3. C) Wireless LAN Infrastructure
        4. D) Cellular Infrastructure
      4. III. THE NOTICE ARCHITECTURE
        1. A) Vehicle-to-Belt Communications
        2. B) Sensor Belt-to-Belt Communications
        3. C) Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications
        4. D) Incident Detection time
        5. E) Security and Privacy Issues
        6. F) Solutions and Recommendations
      5. IV. COMPARISON AMONG WLAN, CELLULAR AND NOTICE SYSTEMS
      6. V. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    2. 2. Architecture of Vehicular Ad Hoc Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VANET AND MANET
      4. INTRA-VEHICLE COMMUNICATIONS
        1. Wired Technology
        2. LIN Application
        3. LIN and CAN Connectivity
        4. LIN Specification
      5. COMMUNICATION CONCEPT
        1. LIN Slave Implementation
      6. OVERVIEW OF CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK (CAN)
        1. CAN Controllers and CAN Bus
        2. Network comparison
      7. WIRELESS INTRA-VEHICULAR COMMUNICATIONS
        1. Bluetooth Introduction
          1. How Bluetooth Works
        2. Bluetooth Applications in Vehicles
          1. Hands-Free Cell Phone Use
        3. Evolving Applications
      8. SATELLITE SERVICES
        1. Satellite Radio
      9. INTER-VEHICLE COMMUNICATION
      10. TRANSMISSION METHODS
        1. Infrastructure to Vehicle
        2. Vehicle to Vehicle
      11. COMPONENTS OF A SMART VEHICLE
        1. Event Data Recorder (EDR)
        2. Cellular Transmitter/Receiver
        3. The Global positioning System (GPS)
        4. Side Radar and Forward Radar
        5. Wireless Networking Transmitter/Receiver
        6. Microprocessor
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITioNS
  7. 2. Applications of VANETs
    1. 3. The Role of Communication Technologies in Vehicular Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGN OF EFFICIENT VEHICULAR APPLICATIONS
        1. Vehicular Applications and Services
        2. Safety Applications
        3. Traffic Management and Monitoring Systems
        4. Comfort Applications
      5. NETWORKING REQUIREMENTS OF VEHICULAR APPLICATIONS
        1. Location Awareness
        2. Geocast Capability
        3. Penetration Rate Dependency
        4. Time Awareness
        5. Permanent Access
        6. Mobility
        7. Communication Technologies
          1. Bluetooth
          2. WLAN and DSRC
          3. Cellular Networks
          4. WiMAX
          5. RDS and TMC
          6. Satellite
          7. Synthesis
        8. Setting up the Communication Channel
          1. NEMO
          2. Multihoming
          3. Flow distribution
          4. Route Optimization
          5. MANEMO
          6. MANET and VANET
          7. P2P Overlay Network over Cellular Networks
      6. APPLICATIONS REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 4. Safety and Commercial Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND (APPLICATIONS IN VANET)
      4. DSRC (DESIGNATED SHORT RANGE COMMUNICATIONS)
      5. SAFETY APPLICATION
      6. HIGH PRIORITY VEHICLE SAFETY
        1. City Safety
        2. Blind Spot Warning
        3. Precrash Warning
        4. Highway Collision Warning
        5. Intersection collision Avoidance
      7. LOW PRIORITY SAFETY
        1. Curve Speed Warning
        2. Work Zone Warning
        3. Wrong Way Warning
        4. Low Bridge Warning
        5. Emergency Electronic Brake Lights
        6. Merge Assistant
        7. Lane change warning
        8. DNPW: Do Not Pass Warning
      8. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
        1. Road Condition and Weather Condition
        2. Parking Location Assistance
        3. Restaurant Information and Assistant
        4. Road General Services: Road Toll payment
      9. ENTERTAINMENT APPLICATIONS
      10. CASE STUDY "MONITORING HIGHWAY TRAFFIC USING SENSORS"
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. WEB SITES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 5. Information Sharing in VANETs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INFORMATION SHARING IN VANETs
        1. Infoshare: A Data-centric P2P Approach to Information Sharing in VANETs
          1. Information Sharing Application
          2. Query Message Format
          3. Query Transmission
          4. Information Retrieval and Transmission
            1. Drawbacks:
            2. Advantages:
          5. Information Caching
        2. Content Query Propagation Schemes
          1. Mitigated Flooding
          2. Location Aided Query Propagation
          3. Eureka
          4. Propagation Based on Preferred Group Broadcasting
          5. Comparative Evaluation
        3. Content Caching Schemes
          1. Comparative Evaluation
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Bandwidth Constraints
        2. Service Discovery
        3. Information Distribution and Survival
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. ENDNOTE
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. 3. Communication Protocols in VANETs
    1. 6. Medium Access Protocols for Cooperative Collision Avoidance in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Overview of MAC Protocols
          1. Time Schedule-Based MAC Protocols
          2. Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Based MAC Protocols
          3. Cluster-Based MAC Protocols
          4. Directional Antenna-Based MAC Protocols
          5. CSMA-Based MAC Protocols
        2. Standardization Activities
      4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
        1. IEEE 802.11 DCF Protocol
        2. Existing Analytical Models
          1. Models For Unicast Communication
          2. Models for Broadcast Communication
        3. Proposed Model
          1. System Model
          2. Collision Probability
          3. Hidden Terminal Case
          4. Expression for the Delay
          5. Mean and Standard Deviation
        4. Model Validation and Results Discussion
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 7. Analyzing IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16e Technologies for Single-Hop Inter-Vehicle Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORIGINS OF WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS
      4. INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS NETWORKS
      5. IEEE 802.11 WLAN ARCHITECTURE
      6. PHYSICAL LAYER
      7. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL SUB-LAYER
      8. PHYSICAL LAYER OF 802.11G
      9. PHY FRAMES
      10. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL OF 802.11G
        1. Analysis of Throughput and Delay
      11. IEEE 802.16 WMAN Architecture
        1. Physical Layer
        2. Medium Access Control Sub-Layer
        3. Analysis of Throughput and Delay for IEEE 802.16
          1. Computation of the Contention Delay
          2. Computation of the Waiting Delay
          3. Performance Analysis
        4. Simulation Model for VANET
        5. Simulation Scenarios
        6. Results Obtained By Simulations
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. APPENDIX A: TABLE OF ACRONYMS
    3. 8. Survey of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS
      4. ROUTING PROTOCOLS
        1. Topology-Based Routing protocols
        2. Proactive (Table-Driven)
        3. Reactive (On Demand)
        4. Evaluation of the Topology- Based Routing
        5. Geographic (position- Based) Routing
        6. Non-DTN - Overlay
        7. Overlay
      5. CBF
        1. Hybrid
      6. DTN
        1. Hybrid
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. 9. Geographic Routing on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Principle of Position-Based Routing Protocols
        2. Aim of This Chapter
      3. PROBLEMS, CHALLENGES AND DESIGN ISSUES
      4. ROUTING ON VANETS: CLASSIFICATION AND INTRODUCTION
        1. Use of Position Information for Broadcast Optimization
        2. Problem on Perimeter Routing Strategy in VANET
        3. Routing Strategy in City Scenario
        4. Recent Approaches
      5. RESILIENT GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING IN VANET
        1. Preliminaries
        2. Route Discovery Process
      6. ROUTE MAINTENANCE PROCESS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. 10. Reliable Routing Protocols in VANETs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE FLOODING BASED ROUTING
      4. THE MOBILITY BASED ROUTING
      5. THE INFRASTRUCTURE BASED ROUTING
      6. THE GEOGRAPHIC POSITION BASED ROUTING
      7. THE PROBABILITY BASED ROUTING
        1. Background of Yan's Method
          1. TBP and TBP-SE
          2. Limitations of TBP and TBP-SE
          3. Delay/Cost/Stability- Constrained QoS Routing
          4. Link Stability Specified by a Probabilistic Method
          5. Imprecise State Model
        2. Initial Number of Tickets
          1. Red Tickets
          2. Green and Yellow Tickets
          3. Distributing the Probes
            1. Candidate Neighbors
            2. Distributing Tickets among Candidates
            3. Termination and Path Selection
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    6. 11. Mobility and Traffic Model Analysis for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILITY MODELS FOR VANET: A BACKGROUND
        1. Synthetic Models
          1. Stochastic Models
            1. Analysis of Stochastic Models
          2. Traffic Stream Models
          3. Car Following Models
            1. Analysis of the Car-Following Models
          4. Queue Based Models
          5. Behavioral Model
        2. Trace-Based Models
        3. Survey Based Models
        4. Traffic Simulator Based Models
      4. TRAFFIC FLOW THEORY
        1. Parameters Involved in Traffic Flow Theory
          1. Speed (v)
          2. Density (k)
          3. Flow Rate (q)
          4. Speed-Flow-Density Relationship
        2. Analysis of Traffic Models
          1. Road Models
          2. Vehicle Classes
          3. Traffic Conditions
          4. Driver Behavior
          5. Modeling Traffic
          6. Intelligent Driver Model and Traffic Scenario Analysis
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
      6. REFERENCES
    7. 12. Probabilistic Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKROUND
      4. SPEED ADAPTIVE PROBABILISTIC FLOODING
        1. Design Rationale and Methodology
        2. Speed Adaptive Probabilistic Flooding Algorithm
        3. Performance Evaluation
      5. INFORMATION HOVERING
        1. Information Hovering Protocols
        2. Problem Definition
        3. Performance Evaluation
      6. INFORMATION PROPAGATION PROBABILITY ON INTERSECTIONS
        1. Problem Formulation
        2. Theoretical Analysis of Message Propagation Probability on Intersections
          1. The Transmission Way
          2. Driving Way
        3. Simulative Validation
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  9. 4. General Research Challenges in VANETs
    1. 13. Clustering, Connectivity, and Monitoring Challenges in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Attackers
        2. Scalability
        3. Connectivity in VANET
      4. TECHNIQUES TO DETECT ATTACKERS IN VANET
        1. VANET Techniques
          1. Eviction of Misbehaving and Faulty Vehicles
          2. Detecting and Correcting Malicious Data in VANETs
          3. Detection and Localization of Sybil Vehicles in VANETs
      5. CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS
        1. MANET Clustering Algorithms
          1. The Highest-Degree Heuristic Algorithm (Lin, 1997; Baker, 1981)
          2. The Lowest-ID Algorithm (Lin, 1997; Gerla, 1995)
          3. The Weighted Clustering Algorithm (WCA)
        2. VANET Clustering Algorithms
          1. Improvement of HD and LID(Fan & Haran, 2005)
          2. Clustering for Open Inter-Vehicle communication Networks
          3. Location-Based Routing Algorithm with Cluster-Based Flooding
          4. Clustered Gathering Protocol
          5. A Direction Based Clustering (Fan & Mohamadian, 2007)
      6. TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE CONNECTIVITY
        1. Fair Power Adjustment for Vehicular (FpAv) Environments
        2. Dynamic Transmission Range Assignment (DTRA)
        3. Adaptive Allocation of Transmission Range
      7. PERFORMANCE COMPARISION
        1. Performance of Algorithms to Detect Attackers
        2. Performance of Clustering Algorithms
        3. Performance of Connectivity Algorithms
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTE
    2. 14. Opportunistic Networking in Delay Tolerant Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. State of the Art
      3. VEHICULAR NETWORKING ENVIRONMENT
        1. Application Scenario: Nature and Scope of Data Exchange
        2. Network Architecture
        3. Mobility Scenarios
        4. Vehicular Traffic Density
      4. OPPORTUNISTIC NETWORKING
        1. Vehicle Density, connectivity and Fragmentation
        2. Delay Tolerant Networking
        3. Message Propagation Rate
      5. APPLICATION SCENARIOS
        1. Information Warning Functions
        2. Traffic Information Services
        3. Smart Traveler Services
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 15. Adaptive Solutions in Multihop Communication Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VEHICULAR NETWORKS APPLICATIONS AND DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATIONS
        1. Overview of the Evolution of VANET Applications classification
      4. COMMUNICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR VANET APPLICATIONS
        1. Beaconing
        2. Geocast
        3. Advance Information dissemination
        4. Unicast Routing
        5. Information Aggregation
        6. Carry and Forward
      5. NEED FOR ADAPTIVITY IN THE DESIGN OF A COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL FOR VANETS
        1. V2i integration in communication protocols
        2. Extreme Dynamic Network characteristics
          1. Node Velocity
          2. Movement Patterns
          3. Node Density
          4. Node Heterogeneity
      6. DESIGN OF ADAPTIVE COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS AND CHALLENGES
        1. Adaptive Solutions in communications protocols proposals
        2. How to Analyze Adaptive Solutions
          1. Origin of Metric, Mechanism and Policy Concepts in Adaptive Solutions
          2. Metric, Mechanism and Policy Concepts
        3. Comparative Analysis between Adaptive Solutions
        4. Challenges and problems to Consider
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Compilation of References
  11. About the Contributors