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Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology

Book Description

New solutions are needed for future scaling down of nonvolatile memory. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology provides an overview of developing technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contributor contact details
  5. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  6. 1. Overview of non-volatile memory technology: markets, technologies and trends
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 The non-volatile memory (NVM) market and applications
    4. 1.3 Developments in charge storage memory technology
    5. 1.4 Alternative memory storage concepts
    6. 1.5 Beyond evolutionary architecture scaling
    7. 1.6 Future trends
    8. 1.7 References
  7. Part I: Improvements in Flash technologies
    1. 2. Developments in 3D-NAND Flash technology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 2D-NAND Flash memory: limitations in scaling
      4. 2.3 3D-NAND Flash memory with vertical channels
      5. 2.4 3D-NAND Flash memory with horizontal channels
      6. 2.5 Performance and electrical characteristics of different 3D-NAND Flash memory designs
      7. 2.6 Conclusion
      8. 2.7 References
    2. 3. Multi-bit NAND Flash memories for ultra high density storage devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Array architectures
      4. 3.3 Read techniques
      5. 3.4 Program and erase algorithms
      6. 3.5 Reliability issues in NAND Flash memory technologies
      7. 3.6 Monolithic 3D integration
      8. 3.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 3.8 References
    3. 4. Improving embedded Flash memory technology: silicon and metal nanocrystals, engineered charge-trapping layers and split-gate memory architectures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Silicon nanocrystals
      4. 4.3 Metal nanocrystals
      5. 4.4 Charge trap memories
      6. 4.5 Split-gate charge trap memories
      7. 4.6 Conclusion
      8. 4.7 References
  8. Part II: Phase change memory (PCM) and resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies
    1. 5. Phase change memory (PCM) materials and devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Phase change materials: structure and crystallization kinetics
      4. 5.3 Properties of phase change materials
      5. 5.4 Phase change memory (PCM): principles and modeling
      6. 5.5 PCM device design and engineering
      7. 5.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 5.7 References
    2. 6. Nanowire phase change memory (PCM) technologies: principles, fabrication and characterization techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Strategies for improving the PCM performance
      4. 6.3 The use of nanowires
      5. 6.4 Fabrication of phase change nanowires (PC-NWs): top-down approaches
      6. 6.5 Fabrication of phase change nanowires (PC-NWs): bottom-up approaches
      7. 6.6 Fabrication of phase change nanowires (PC-NWs): other techniques
      8. 6.7 Characterization of PC-NWs
      9. 6.8 Conclusion
      10. 6.9 Sources of further information and advice
      11. 6.10 References
    3. 7. Nanowire phase change memory (PCM) technologies: properties and performance
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Melting temperature and crystallization kinetics
      4. 7.3 Phase transition mechanisms
      5. 7.4 Thermal properties
      6. 7.5 Electrical properties
      7. 7.6 Properties of core-shell structures
      8. 7.7 Conclusion
      9. 7.8 Acknowledgement
      10. 7.9 Sources of further information and advice
      11. 7.10 References
    4. 8. Modeling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) switching mechanisms and memory structures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Methodology for <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">ab initio</em> modeling of O modeling of O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">x</sub>RRAMsRRAMs
      4. 8.3 Physical concept for O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">x</sub>RRAM switching mechanisms based on density functional theory (DFT)-based RRAM switching mechanisms based on density functional theory (DFT)-based <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">ab initio</em> modeling modeling
      5. 8.4 O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">x</sub>RRAM optimization based on DFT-based RRAM optimization based on DFT-based <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">ab initio</em> modeling modeling
      6. 8.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 8.6 References
    5. 9. Metal oxide resistive random access memory (RRAM) technology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Operational characteristics of HfO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>-based RRAM-based RRAM
      4. 9.3 Modeling forming and switching processes
      5. 9.4 Materials development: engineering vacancy profiles for RRAM
      6. 9.5 Read current instability (random telegraph noise)
      7. 9.6 Conclusion
      8. 9.7 Acknowledgements
      9. 9.8 References
    6. 10. Conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) technology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Scaling challenges in dynamic random access memory (DRAM)
      4. 10.3 Scaling challenges in Flash memory
      5. 10.4 Marketplace challenges for emerging memory technologies
      6. 10.5 Operation of a CBRAM cell from an atomic wire point of view
      7. 10.6 The ON state of a CBRAM cell and the programming operation
      8. 10.7 The OFF state of a CBRAM cell and the erase operation
      9. 10.8 Conclusion and future trends
      10. 10.9 References
    7. 11. Memristors for non-volatile memory and other applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 The realization of memristor devices
      4. 11.3 Design of memristor-based non-volatile memory
      5. 11.4 Other promising memristor applications
      6. 11.5 Acknowledgement
      7. 11.6 References
      8. 11.7 Appendix: Memristor characteristic properties
  9. Part III: Alternative emerging technologies
    1. 12. Molecular, polymer and hybrid organic memory devices (OMDs)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Types of organic memory devices (OMDs)
      4. 12.3 Conclusion and future trends
      5. 12.4 References
    2. 13. Nano-electromechanical random access memory (RAM) devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Device structure and cell operation
      4. 13.3 Fabrication process for a prototype cell
      5. 13.4 Assessing cell reliability
      6. 13.5 Device scaling
      7. 13.6 Conclusion
      8. 13.7 References
    3. 14. Ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Basic properties of ferroelectric capacitors
      4. 14.3 Ferroelectric materials used for FRAM devices
      5. 14.4 FRAM fabrication processes
      6. 14.5 Ferroelectric memory cell structure of capacitor-type FRAM devices
      7. 14.6 Assessing the reliability of FRAM devices
      8. 14.7 Applications of FRAM devices
      9. 14.8 Conclusion and future trends
      10. 14.9 References
    4. 15. Spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) technology
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Materials and devices
      4. 15.3 Improving memory storage
      5. 15.4 Improving logic-in-memory architecture
      6. 15.5 Future trends
      7. 15.6 Conclusion
      8. 15.7 Acknowledgement
      9. 15.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 15.9 References
  10. Index