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Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture

Book Description

Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture is a seminal publication in the emerging and evolving discipline of enterprise architecture (EA). Presenting current developments, issues, and trends in EA, this critical resource provides insights into the impact of effective EA on IT governance, IT portfolio management, and IT outsourcing.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. List of Reviewers
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. SECTION I: FRAMEWORKS AND METHODOLOGIES
    2. SECTION II: LEADERSHIP, GOVERNANCE, AND MANAGEMENT
    3. SECTION III: REALIZATION AND DEPLOYMENT
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. I. Frameworks and Methodologies
    1. I. A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Overview of E-Government
        2. Overview of EA
      4. STAGES OF AND PROGRESS TOWARDS E-GOVERNMENT
      5. ROLE OF EA IN E-GOVERNMENT CAPABILITY AND MATURITY
          1. Architecture Maturity Model
      6. SINGAPORE E-GOVERNMENT PROGRAMME
        1. Introduction
        2. Evolution of E-Government Programme
      7. OVERVIEW OF SINGAPORE GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      8. METHODOLOGY FOR AGENCY ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
        1. Integrated Enterprise Lifecycle Approach with MAGENTA
        2. Adopting MAGENTA: A Generic EA Methodology
      9. GOVERNMENT TRANSFORMATION WITH EA (AND MAGENTA)
      10. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS AND RESEARCH
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    2. II. A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE
        1. Position and Role of the Reference Architecture
        2. Service Orientation in E-Government
        3. Principles and Building Blocks
        4. Modelling the Architecture
        5. Example: Personal Internet Page
        6. First Results
      5. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
        1. Requirements Analysis
        2. From Requirements to Services
        3. Fragmentation
        4. Compatibility
        5. Quality
        6. Accessibility
        7. Future E-Government Service Architecture
        8. Process Orchestration
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    3. A. APPENDIX: OVERVIEW OF MAIN ARCHITECTURAL PRINCIPLES
      1. Organization
      2. Business Services
      3. Processes
      4. Employees and Applications
      5. Data and Messages
      6. Information Exchange
      7. Technical Components
      8. Data Storage
      9. Network Architecture
    4. III. Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      4. ASPECTS OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      5. TRANSFORMING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      6. EVOLUTION AND ORGANIZATION OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE CONCEPTS: AN OVERVIEW
      7. PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSFORMATIONS
        1. Transformation by Redistributing Responsibilities
        2. Transformation by Grouping Responsibilities Together
        3. Transformation by Creating New Capabilities
      8. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE CHALLENGES PECULIAR TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR
      9. PROGRESSION THROUGH THE ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPMENT CYCLE
      10. BEACON ARCHITECTURE
        1. Organizational Architecture
        2. Business Beacon
        3. Business Architecture Strategy
        4. Business Architecture Roadmap
        5. Operational and Developmental Alternatives Analysis
        6. Information Systems Patterns and Frameworks
        7. Enterprise Governance, and Correlation to Architectural Governance and Transformation
      11. CORRELATION OF BEACON ARCHITECTURE WITH TARGET, TRANSITION AND REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE
      12. ROLE OF BEACON ARCHITECTURE IN MITIGATING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE CHALLENGES PECULIAR TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR
      13. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. ENDNOTES
    5. IV. Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Definitions of Enterprise Architecture
        2. Enterprise Architecture and Total Quality Management Models
      4. PROPSED SCOPE OF THE ENTERPRISE ARCH ITECTURE
        1. Enterprise information Architecture: Concept and Maturity Model
          1. Definition of Enterprise Information Architecture
          2. Enterprise Information Architecture Maturity Model
      5. EIA MATURITY MODEL APPROACHES
        1. Practical EIA Maturity Model
        2. EIA Maturity Model Level 1
        3. EIA Maturity Model Level 2
          1. Phase 1: Develop EIA Solution
          2. Phase 2: Pilot Project for EIA Solution
          3. Phase 3: Refine Proven EIA Solution
          4. Phase 4: Institutionalize EIA Solution
          5. Supporting Activities
        4. EIA Maturity Model Level 3
        5. EIA Maturity Model Level 4
        6. EIA Maturity Model Level 5
        7. Major Processes of the EIA Maturity Models
          1. The Basic Characteristics of EIA Maturity Model
        8. The Comparison between EIAMM and CMMI
        9. EIA Maturity Model for Enterprise Business and Enterprise IT Alignment
        10. Quality of EIA
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. V. Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EA FRAMEWORKS
        1. What is Enterprise Architecture?
        2. EA and the Enterprise
        3. Architectural Returns
      4. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND CURRENT MEASUREMENT OF KM
        1. An Explanation of Knowledge Management
        2. Measuring KM
        3. Maturity Models
      5. LINKING KM TO ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      6. A KM MATURITY MODEL
        1. The Knowledge Management Maturity Model Framework
        2. Organisational Environment
          1. Social Aspects
          2. Culture
          3. Incentives
          4. Trust Issues
          5. Technical and Managerial Support
          6. Organisational Structure
          7. Awareness and Commitment
        3. Strategy and Goals for KM Projects
        4. Utilisation of Knowledge and Technology
          1. Information Technology
          2. Maintenance and Protection
          3. Using and Applying Knowledge
        5. Quality
        6. Tailoring the Model
      7. USING THE KM-MM IN AN EA CONTEXT
        1. Working out the "As-ls"
        2. Defining the "To-Be"
        3. Developing the Roadmap
        4. Measuring Progress
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
  7. II. Leadership, Governance, and Management
    1. VI. The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF U.S. GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
      4. U.S. OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE INITIATIVES
          1. Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework
      5. U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE/GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE AND
        1. Enterprise Architecture
      6. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
      7. VISION, INTEGRITY, COMMUNICATION, INSPIRATION, AND EMPOWERMENT
        1. Transformational Leadership Model
        2. Vision
        3. Integrity
        4. Communication
        5. Inspiration
        6. Empowerment
      8. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK
      9. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    2. VII. Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND IN GOVERNMENT AND IT CHALLENGES
      4. ACE FRAMEWORK
      5. THE CITY'S STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLAN
      6. INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE 311 SYSTEM
        1. Evaluation Approach
        2. Evaluation of Direct and Indirect Impact
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. VIII. Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGN INTEGRITY
        1. Design Integrity from Idea to Implementation
      4. THE DESIGN INTEGRITY FRAMEWORK
      5. CONTEXTUAL MODEL (REQUIREMENTS)
      6. CONCEPTUAL MODEL (SCOPE)
      7. LOGICAL MODEL (DESIGN)
      8. PHYSICAL MODEL (IMPLEMENTATION)
      9. IMPLEMENTING DESIGN INTEGRITY
      10. CONTEXTUAL MODEL
      11. CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      12. LOGICAL MODEL
      13. PHYSICAL MODEL
      14. USING THE DESIGN INTEGRITY FRAMEWORK
      15. CHOOSING MEASURES
      16. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
      17. GAP ANALYSIS
      18. IMPACT ANALYSIS
      19. GOVERNANCE ROLES
      20. THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE STEERING COMMITTEE
      21. THE DESIGN INTEGRITY GOVERNANCE ROLES
      22. CUSTOMER
      23. SPONSOR
      24. DESIGNER
      25. IMPLEMENTER
      26. CONCLUSION
      27. REFERENCES
      28. ENDNOTES
    4. IX. Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PARADOX OF GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS
        1. Organizational Faces
      3. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ENTERS GOVERNMENT
        1. The Missing Link: The Purpose Reference Model
      4. POLICY MAPPING: WHY, WHAT, AND HOW
        1. Why Create a Policy Map?
        2. A Policy Map Shows Relationships
        3. Crafting Your Policy Map
      5. CHALLENGES TO POLICY MAPPING
        1. Possibilities to Consider
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
    5. X. Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Enterprise Architecture Management
        2. IT Governance
        3. IT Investment Planning
      4. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE, IT INVESTMENT PLANNING, AND GOVERNANCE
        1. Primary Objectives
        2. Finding the Right Fields of Activity
        3. The Right Support of the Right Fields of Activity
          1. Development of Standards
        4. Setting Standards Through the Development of Reference Architectures
        5. Controlling of the Standardization Process
        6. To Support the Right Fields of Activity Right and Reliably
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. XI. The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION – MOTIVATION
      3. 2. STATE OF THE ART
      4. 3. THE GOVERNANCE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK
        1. 3.1 Theoretical Foundation
        2. 3.2 The GEA Framework
          1. Vertical Dimension: Governance System Mega-Processes
          2. Horizontal Dimension: Objects and Processes
      5. 4. THE GOVERNANCE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE MODELS
        1. 4.1 The Overall Object Model for the Governance System
          1. 4.1.1 The "Subject" Object
          2. 4.1.2 The "Goal" and "Need" Objects
          3. 4.1.3 Typology of Governance Goals
            1. Functional Typology
            2. Structural Typology
            3. 4.1.3.1.1 Declarative Goals
            4. 4.1.3.1.2 Assertive Goals
            5. 4.1.3.1.3 Directive Goals
            6. 4.1.3.1.3.1 Imperative Goals
            7. 4.1.3.1.3.2 Optative Goals
            8. 4.1.3.1.4 Interrogative Goals
            9. 4.1.4 The "Public Service" Object
          4. 4.1.5 Typology of Public Services
            1. 4.1.5.1 Declarations
            2. 4.1.5.2 Certifications
            3. 4.1.5.3 Controls
            4. 4.1.5.4 Authorizations
            5. 4.1.5.5 Production
          5. 4.1.5.6 Relationship between Goals–Public Services
          6. 4.1.7 Model Overview
        2. 4.2 The Overall Process Model for the Governance System
      6. 4.3 THE OBJECT MODEL FOR PUBLIC POLICY FORMULATION
        1. 4.4 The Object Model for Service Provision (PA Service Model)
          1. 4.4.1 The Core Objects
          2. 4.4.2 The "Outcome" Object and its Types
          3. 4.4.3 The "Input" Object and its Relationship with "Law"
          4. 4.4.4 The "Public Administration Entity" object
          5. 4.4.5 Model Overview
        2. 4.5 The Process Model for Public Policy Formulation
        3. 4.6 The Process Model for Service Provision
      7. 5. CONCLUSION / FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
    7. XII. Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Role of Architecture
        2. Enterprise Architecture and Governance
        3. The Need for Orchestration
        4. Public-Private Cooperation
      4. RESEARCH APPROACH
      5. CASE: AN ARCHITECTURE FOR INTEGRATED SERVICE DELIVERY
        1. Generic Process
        2. The Architecture
        3. Solving the Fragmentation of Services Across Many Different Organizations
        4. Compatibility of Service Demand and Supply
        5. Quality of Services
        6. Accessibility of Services
      6. CHALLENGES
        1. Architectural Challenges
        2. Governance Challenges
        3. Availability of Management Information
        4. Including Private Partners
        5. Developing Trust Between Partners
        6. Orchestrating Interactions
        7. Establishing Service Level Agreements
        8. Accountability and Responsibility
        9. Flexibility
        10. Orchestrating Over Multiple Channels
      7. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
  8. III. Realization and Deployment
    1. XIII. People-Led Enterprise Architecture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Which People - Know your Stakeholders
        2. What Do we Need From Stakeholders?
        3. Stakeholder Roles
        4. Balancing the Needs of our Stakeholders
        5. How Do You Find Your Customer Stakeholders? - Who has a Need?
        6. How Do You Find Your Builder Stakeholders - Creating a Virtual Team of All the Architects
        7. How DO You Find Your User Stakeholders - Meeting the Needs of the Implementers
          1. Signing Up Your Stakeholders
        8. Stakeholder Management Principles
      4. REALISING THE ARCHITECTURE, FROM A PEOPLE-LED POINT OF VIEW
        1. Identify the Purpose
        2. Develop Architecture Framework
        3. Plan
          1. Direction
          2. Balance
        4. Implementation, Realising the Architecture
          1. Using and Enhancing Existing Governance and Management Approach
          2. Work with the Culture
        5. Monitoring, Measurement and Continuous Improvement
      5. SUSTAINING THE EFFORT, BEING EADY FOR THE FUTURE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
    2. XIV. Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery:The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
        1. HR LOB Business Reference Model
        2. HR LOB Performance Model
        3. HR LOB Service component Model
        4. HR LOB Data Model
        5. HR LOB Technical Model
        6. HR LOB Enterprise Architecture
      5. GOVERNANCE
      6. TARGET REQUIREMENTS FOR SHARED SERVICE CENTERS
        1. Development of the Target Requirements
      7. THE TARGET REQUIREMENTS REPORT
        1. Downstream Use and Next Steps
      8. LESSONS LEARNED
        1. Sponsorship
        2. Relevance
        3. Political Correctness
        4. Change Management
      9. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH
        1. Future of Enterprise Architecture in the U.S. Federal Government
        2. Plug and Play: The Future of Shared Services
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. THOUGHTS ON FUTURE RESEARCH
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTE
    3. XV. Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE GENERAL CONCEPTS
        1. EA as a Management Program
        2. Resource Alignment
        3. Standardized Policy
        4. Decision Support
        5. Resource Development
        6. EA as a Documentation Method
        7. EA Documentation Element 1: The Framework
        8. EA Documentation Element 2: EA Components
        9. EA Documentation Element 3: current Architecture
        10. EA Documentation Element 4: Future Architecture
        11. EA Documentation Element 5: EA Management Plan
        12. EA Documentation Element 6: Planning Threads
      4. SECURITY ARCHITECTURE CONCEPTS
        1. CIA: Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability
      5. SECURITY ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK
        1. Security Architecture Framework Layer 1: Information Security Governance
        2. Security Architecture Framework Layer 2: Operations Security
        3. Security Architecture Framework Layer 3: Personnel Security
        4. Security Architecture Framework Layer 4: Information & Dataflow Security
        5. Security Architecture Framework Layer 5: Application Development Security
        6. Security Architecture Framework Layer 6: Systems Security
        7. Security Architecture Framework Layer 7: infrastructure Security
        8. Security Architecture Framework Layer 8: Physical Security
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Security Architecture Management
        2. Emerging Threats
        3. Lack of Theory-Based Defense Mechanisms to Address Information Integrity Issues
        4. Insufficient Balance Between Information Availability and Access Control
        5. Human Factors
        6. The Concept of Information Assurance
        7. Information Systems Security
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
    4. XVI. Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Enterprise Engineering
        2. Enterprise Architecture Standards: Path to Solution
      4. HOW TO ENGINEER AN ENTERPRISE
        1. Case Study: Product Life Time Service Enterprise
        2. A Case Study: A Research Enterprise
        3. An Example: Virtual Enterprise of SMEs
      5. DYNAMICS OF CHANGE: FUTURE RESEARCH ISSUES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. XVII. Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN THRUST OF THIS CHAPTER
        1. Key Findings from Existing E-Government Strategies
        2. A Common Architecture for E-Government Models
        3. The Collaborative Enterprise Architecture
        4. Applying CEA in Local Administrations Cases
          1. A. Authority's Perspective: Setting up the Working Group
          2. B. Business Perspective: Discover the Individual Background
          3. C. Financial Perspective: Secure Funding, Re-Use Infrastructures, Encourage Private Investments and Minimize Maintenance Expenses
          4. D. Political Perspective: Comply with National EA
          5. F. Implementation Perspective: Make Use of Experience from International Case Studies
          6. G. Technical Perspective: Use Common E-government Architectures and Standards to Cover Individual Needs
          7. I. Project Manager's Perspective: Project Life-Cycle (Design and Implement Projects, Evaluate and Improve the Resulting System)
          8. K. Administrative Perspective: Define the Operational Procedures and Rules; Diffuse the Results in the Target Groups
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    6. XVIII. Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Strategic Alignment
        2. Enterprise Architecture
        3. Government Business Processes
      4. A MODEL OF BUSINESS PROCESS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS ALIGNMENT
      5. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE DATA AND COLLECTION METHODS
      6. GOVERNMENT AGENCY CASE STUDIES
        1. The Australian Bureau of Statistics
        2. The Centrelink Social Services Agency
        3. The Enterprise Architecture Frameworks and Methods
        4. The Architecture Governance
        5. The Enterprise Architecture Structures
        6. Other Alignment Mechanisms
      7. ALIGNING BUSINESS PROCESSES AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS USING ARCHITECTURE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    7. B. APPENDIX A ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE STUDY QUESTIONS GUIDE
      1. Section 1. Enterprise Architecture Frameworks and Methods
      2. Section 2. Architecture Structure and Components
      3. Section 3. Social Dimensions of Alignment
      4. Section 4. Alignment Methods and Alignment
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors