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Advances in Computed Tomography for Geomaterials: GeoX 2010

Book Description

This title discusses a broad range of issues related to the use of computed tomography in geomaterials and geomechanics. The contributions cover a wide range of topics, including deformation and strain localization in soils, rocks and sediments; fracture and damage assessment in rocks, asphalt and concrete; transport in porous media; oil and gas exploration and production; neutron tomography and other novel experimental and analytical techniques; image-based computational modeling; and software and visualization tools.

As such, this will be valuable reading for anyone interested in the application of computed tomography to geomaterials from both fundamental and applied perspectives.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Organizing Committee
  5. International Advisory Committee
  6. Foreword
  7. Sand Deformation at the Grain Scale Quantified Through X-ray Imaging
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experimental setup, testing program and materials tested
    3. 3. Continuum and discrete volumetric digital image correlation
    4. 4. Selected results
      1. 4.1. Hostun sand
      2. 4.2. Caicos ooid
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. References
  8. Quantitative Description of Grain Contacts in a Locked Sand
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Locked sand
    3. 3. Material and methods
      1. 3.1. Reigate Silver Sand
      2. 3.2. Field sampling
      3. 3.3. X-ray micro CT imaging
    4. 4. Image analysis
      1. 4.1. Grain contact description
    5. 5. Results and discussion
    6. 6. Conclusions
    7. 7. References
  9. 3D Characterization of Particle Interaction Using Synchrotron Microtomography
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Materials and methods
    3. 3. Particle sliding and rotation during shear
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. Acknowledgments
    6. 6. References
  10. Characterization of the Evolving Grain-Scale Structure in a Sand Deforming under Triaxial Compression
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experimental set-up and material
      1. 2.1. Material studied and mechanical response
      2. 2.2. In-situ x-ray micro-tomography
    3. 3. Data analysis: characterization of structural evolution
      1. 3.1. Porosity analysis
      2. 3.2. 3D-volumetric DIC
      3. 3.3. Grain contact analysis
        1. 3.3.1. Image segmentation and contact recognition
        2. 3.3.2. Contact distribution – contact density and grain coordination number
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  11. Visualization of Strain Localization and Microstructures in Soils during Deformation Using Microfocus X-ray CT
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Microfocus x-ray CT
    3. 3. Visualization of strain localization in soil specimens
      1. 3.1. Unsaturated sand during triaxial compression tests
      2. 3.2. Water-saturated clay during unconfined compression test
    4. 4. Microstructures in sand specimens
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. References
  12. Determination of 3D Displacement Fields between X-ray Computed Tomography Images Using 3D Cross-Correlation
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Cross-correlation technique for pure displacements
      1. 2.1. Determination of 3D displacement fields
      2. 2.2. NCC issues and solutions
    3. 3. An interactive computer code to find 3D displacement fields
      1. 3.1. Determination of 3D displacement fields using M-DST
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. Acknowledgements
    6. 6. References
  13. Characterization of Shear and Compaction Bands in Sandstone Using X-ray Tomography and 3D Digital Image Correlation
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Full field non-destructive techniques
      1. 2.1. X-ray computed tomography
      2. 2.2. Digital Image Correlation
    3. 3. Experimental work: materials studied and experimental program
    4. 4. Results and discussion
      1. 4.1. Characterization of shear band structure in the Vosges sandstone
      2. 4.2. Characterization of compaction band structure in the Vosges sandstone
      3. 4.3. Visualization of compaction band on Bentheim sandstone
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  14. Deformation Characteristics of Tire Chips-Sand Mixture in Triaxial Compression Test by Using X-ray CT Scanning
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Deformation characteristics of rubber particle aggregate
      1. 2.1. Experimental method
      2. 2.2. Experimental results
    3. 3. Deformation characteristics of tire chips and sand mixture
      1. 3.1. Experimental method
      2. 3.2. Experimental results
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  15. Strain Field Measurements in Sand under Triaxial Compression Using X-ray CT Data and Digital Image Correlation
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Summary of test procedure
    3. 3. Image analysis
    4. 4. Results and discussion
      1. 4.1. Test results
      2. 4.2. Digital image correlation results
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. References
  16. Latest Developments in 3D Analysis of Geomaterials by Morpho+
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Morpho+
      1. 2.1. Scanning conditions
      2. 2.2. 3D analysis by Morpho+
        1. 2.2.1. Morpho+ analysis steps
          1. 2.2.1.1. Volume of interest selection
          2. 2.2.1.2. Segmentation and filtering techniques
          3. 2.2.1.3. Labeling
          4. 2.2.1.4. Distance transform
          5. 2.2.1.5. Quantitative information
      3. 2.3. Data visualization
    3. 3. Conclusions
    4. 4. Acknowledgements
    5. 5. References
  17. Quantifying Particle Shape in 3D
    1. 1. Introduction to particle shape in 3D
    2. 2. Measuring particle shape – experiment and mathematical analysis
    3. 3. Examples of particle shape analysis
      1. 3.1. Simulated lunar soil
      2. 3.2. Portland cement
      3. 3.3. Gravel
      4. 3.4. Sand
      5. 3.5. Laser diffraction vs. x-ray CT
      6. 3.6. Generating new virtual particles statistically similar to a real particle dataset
    4. 4. Future research
    5. 5. References
  18. 3D Aggregate Evaluation Using Laser and X-ray Scanning
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Laser and x-ray scanning systems for aggregate evaluations
      1. 2.1. Surveyor 3D laser scanner
        1. 2.1.1. Image analysis and volumetric reconstruction
      2. 2.2. Skyscan 1174 x-ray micro-CT scanner
        1. 2.2.1. Image analysis and volumetric reconstruction
    3. 3. Data analysis and results
      1. 3.1. Aggregate dimensioning
      2. 3.2. Aggregate surface area and volume evaluation
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  19. Computation of Aggregate Contact Points, Orientation and Segregation in Asphalt Specimens Using their X-ray CT Images
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Materials and characteristics of the x-ray CT equipment
    3. 3. Image processing procedure to segment aggregates
    4. 4. Calculation of aggregate-to-aggregate contact points
    5. 5. Calculation of the orientation of aggregates
    6. 6. Calculation of the segregation of aggregates
    7. 7. Conclusions
    8. 8. References
  20. Integration of 3D Imaging and Discrete Element Modeling for Concrete Fracture Problems
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Instrumentation and experiments
    3. 3. Lattice formulation and simulation
    4. 4. Examination of specimens with spherical inclusions
    5. 5. Summary
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  21. Application of Microfocus X-ray CT to Investigate the Frost-induced Damage Process in Cement-based Materials
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experimental procedure
      1. 2.1. Material tested for freezing-thawing experiment
      2. 2.2. Image acquisition using microfocus x-ray CT
    3. 3. Results and discussion
      1. 3.1. Microtomographic images from cone-beam scanning
      2. 3.2. Image processing and analysis of scanned section of specimen
        1. 3.2.1. Extraction of air void or cracks from the microtomographic images
        2. 3.2.2. Visualization and quantification of void space
    4. 4. Conclusion
    5. 5. Acknowledgments
    6. 6. References
  22. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Self-healing in Concrete by Means of µ-CT
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Materials and methods
      1. 2.1. Preparation of the samples
      2. 2.2. Crack formation
      3. 2.3. Evaluation of healing by means of μ-CT
    3. 3. Results and discussion
      1. 3.1. Sensing and actuation
      2. 3.2. Regain in mechanical properties
      3. 3.3. Amount of crack filling
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. Acknowledgements
    6. 6. References
  23. Quantification of Material Constitution in Concrete by X-ray CT Method
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. X-ray CT method
    3. 3. X-ray CT image and CT value
    4. 4. Quantification method for material constitution in concrete
      1. 4.1. CT value of the void-mortar boundary
        1. 4.1.1. Finding the CT value of the void-mortar boundary
        2. 4.1.2. Evaluation of void ratio
      2. 4.2. CT value of the aggregate-mortar boundary
        1. 4.2.1. Phantom
        2. 4.2.2. Evaluation of aggregate ratio
    5. 5. Application to concrete specimen
      1. 5.1. Boundary CT value in scan sectional plane of mortar specimen
      2. 5.2. Boundary CT value of concrete specimen
    6. 6. Conclusions
    7. 7. References
  24. Sealing Behavior of Fracture in Cementitious Material with Micro-Focus X-ray CT
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Sample
    3. 3. Methodology
      1. 3.1. Observation method of precipitation
      2. 3.2. Image analysis method
    4. 4. Results
      1. 4.1. Results of observation
      2. 4.2. Results of image analysis
    5. 5. Discussion
    6. 6. Conclusions
    7. 7. Acknowledgements
    8. 8. References
  25. Extraction of Effective Cement Paste Diffusivities from X-ray Microtomography Scans
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Numerical results
    3. 3. Correction for unresolved submicron features
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  26. Contributions of X-ray CT to the Characterization of Natural Building Stones and their Disintegration
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Methods and instrumentation
      1. 2.1. Outline of the UGCT scanner and scanning conditions
      2. 2.2. Software
      3. 2.3. Characterization and durability tests on natural building stones
    3. 3. Materials
    4. 4. Results and discussion
      1. 4.1. Characterization test
      2. 4.2. Durability test on the Noyant Fine limestone
    5. 5. Conclusion
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  27. Characterization of Porous Media in Agent Transport Simulation
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. X-ray CT scan of porous building materials
      1. 2.1. Materials and experimental set-up
      2. 2.2. Scanned images of specimens and image processing
    3. 3. 3D image reconstruction
    4. 4. Quantitative estimate of material properties based on x-ray scans
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  28. Two Less-Used Applications of Petrophysical CT-Scanning
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Dual energy CT for core characterization
      1. 2.1. Scanning considerations-spatial repeatability
      2. 2.2. Scanner calibration for rock – beam hardening
      3. 2.3. Core preparation
      4. 2.4. Standard materials
      5. 2.5. Obtaining coefficients and solving for density and effective atomic number
    3. 3. Saturation calculation during multiphase flow
      1. 3.1. Scanning considerations
      2. 3.2. Image processing
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  29. Trends in CT-Scanning of Reservoir Rocks
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Petroleum engineering applications of micro CT-scanning
    3. 3. Typical workflow for determining petrophysical properties using micro CT
    4. 4. Results for carbonate reservoir data
    5. 5. Discussion
    6. 6. Acknowledgments
    7. 7. References
  30. 3D Microanalysis of Geological Samples with High-Resolution Computed Tomography
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. High resolution CT
    3. 3. Possible resolution and detail detectability
    4. 4. Results
      1. 4.1. Oolithic carbonate: pore analysis
      2. 4.2. Pyroclastic rock: pore network and surface extraction
      3. 4.3. Shell limestone: micro fossils
    5. 5. Summary
    6. 6. Acknowledgments
    7. 7. References
  31. Combination of Laboratory Micro-CT and Micro-XRF on Geological Objects
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experimental setup
    3. 3. Results
      1. 3.1. Yellow rock granite
      2. 3.2. Maastricht limestone
      3. 3.3. Volcanic rock sample
    4. 4. Conclusion
    5. 5. References
  32. Quantification of Physical Properties of the Transitional Phenomena in Rock from X-ray CT Image Data
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Employed x-ray CT scanner
    3. 3. Analysis of tracer advection and diffusion process in porous rock
      1. 3.1. Rock sample and tracer migration test
      2. 3.2. Coefficient of tracer density increment α
      3. 3.3. Analysis of density distribution of tracer
    4. 4. Analysis of CO2 replacement ratio in porous rock
      1. 4.1. Rock sample and CO2 replacement test
      2. 4.2. Results
      3. 4.3. Replacement ratio Rv
      4. 4.4. Analysis of replacement process of CO2
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. References
  33. Deformation in Fractured Argillaceous Rock under Seepage Flow Using X-ray CT and Digital Image Correlation
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Materials and methods
      1. 2.1. Tested material
      2. 2.2. Experimental procedure
      3. 2.3. Image analysis
    3. 3. Results and discussions
      1. 3.1. Direct observation from CT images
      2. 3.2. 3D-DIC results
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  34. Experimental Investigation of Rate Effects on Two-Phase Flow through Fractured Rocks Using X-ray Computed Tomography
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experiment design
    3. 3. Experimental procedure
    4. 4. Determination of porosity and fluid saturation
    5. 5. Results and discussion
    6. 6. Conclusions
    7. 7. Acknowledgements
    8. 8. References
  35. Micro-Petrophysical Experiments Via Tomography and Simulation
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Work flow
    3. 3. Material phase segmentation
    4. 4. Registration
    5. 5. Case studies
    6. 6. Conclusions
    7. 7. Acknowledgements
    8. 8. References
  36. Segmentation of Low-contrast Three-phase X-ray Computed Tomography Images of Porous Media
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Anisotropic diffusion
    3. 3. Indicator kriging
    4. 4. Results and discussion
    5. 5. Conclusion
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  37. X-ray Imaging of Fluid Flow in Capillary Imbibition Experiments
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Description of the selected rocks and methodology
    3. 3. Comparison of capillary parameters and microstructural interpretation
    4. 4. Influence of mechanical compaction on capillary processes
    5. 5. Influence of stress-induced compaction bands
    6. 6. Conclusion
    7. 7. References
  38. Evaluating the Influence of Wall-Roughness on Fracture Transmissivity with CT Scanning and Flow Simulations
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Conversion of CT data to CFD models
      1. 2.1. Roughness properties of fracture meshes
      2. 2.2. Varying apertures fracture meshes
      3. 2.3. Modeling parameters
    3. 3. Results and discussion
      1. 3.1. Flow changes with fracture wall roughness
      2. 3.2. Flow changes with fracture aperture
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. Acknowledgements
    6. 6. References
  39. In Situ Permeability Measurements inside Compaction Bands Using X-ray CT and Lattice Boltzmann Calculations
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Material and methods
    3. 3. X-ray CT images and porosity measurements
    4. 4. Permeability measurements with lattice Boltzmann method
    5. 5. Conclusions and perspectives
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  40. Evaluation of Porosity in Geomaterials Treated with Biogrout Considering Partial Volume Effect
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Methodology
      1. 2.1. Selection of the suitable geomaterials for evaluation of porosity
      2. 2.2. Data collection for evaluation of porosity
    3. 3. Results
      1. 3.1. Selection of the suitable geomaterials for evaluation of porosity
      2. 3.2. Data collection for evaluation of porosity
    4. 4. Evaluation of porosity
      1. 4.1. Thresholding method
      2. 4.2. Calculation of porosity and discussion
    5. 5. Conclusion
    6. 6. References
  41. Image-Based Pore-Scale Modeling Using the Finite Element Method
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Pore-scale modeling techniques
    3. 3. Image-based FEM modeling
      1. 3.1. Materials
      2. 3.2. Meshing
      3. 3.3. Permeability and porosity values
      4. 3.4. Effect of domain thickness
      5. 3.5. Effects of mesh coarsening
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. Acknowledgements
    6. 6. References
  42. Numerical Modeling of Complex Porous Media For Borehole Applications
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Pore geometry and open issues for the carbonate
    3. 3. Numerical NMR relaxometry
    4. 4. Diffusion-Flow propagators
    5. 5. References
  43. Characterization of Soil Erosion due to Infiltration into Capping Layers in Landfill
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experimental overview
      1. 2.1. Development of test apparatus
      2. 2.2. Test condition
    3. 3. Results and discussion
      1. 3.1. Calibration of CT-value, density and hydraulic conductivity
      2. 3.2. X-ray CT image of Case 1 (1.5 t/m3)
      3. 3.3. X-ray CT image of Case 2 (1.4 t/m3 and 1.7 t/m3)
      4. 3.4. Factor of generating local preferential flow path in the cover soil
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  44. On Pore Space Partitioning in Relation to Network Model Building for Fluid Flow Computation in Porous Media
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Skeletonisation and digitisation artefacts
    3. 3. Graph and post-processing
      1. 3.1. Topological classification of pixels
      2. 3.2. Node merging and insertion
    4. 4. Delimitation and validation
      1. 4.1. Region growing vs. throat construction
      2. 4.2. Evaluating the robustness
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. References
  45. 3D and Geometric Information of the Pore Structure in Pressurized Clastic Sandstone
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Inner pore structure and permeability of comparison Berea sandstone and Shirahama sandstone
    3. 3. Outline of the 3DMA method
    4. 4. Microfocus x-ray CT apparatus and geometric information of intact and stressed Shirahama sandstone
    5. 5. Conclusion
    6. 6. References
  46. Evaluation of Pressure-dependent Permeability in Rock by Means of the Tracer-aided X-ray CT
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. The tracer-aided water permeation test system
      1. 2.1. Principal apparatuses
      2. 2.2. Preparation of high density tracer of equivalent with water in viscosity
      3. 2.3. Rock specimen and procedure of the tracer-aided water permeation test
      4. 2.4. Image processing
    3. 3. Theoretical consideration
    4. 4. Analysis of water flow upon the image processing
      1. 4.1. Precise evaluation of the porosity
      2. 4.2. Non-uniform movement of tracer with water flow
      3. 4.3. Evaluation of the mean pore velocity of water in rock
    5. 5. Estimation of the permeability of rock
    6. 6. Conclusions
    7. 7. References
  47. Assessment of Time-Space Evolutions of Intertidal Flat Geo-Environments Using an Industrial X-ray CT Scanner
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Materials and methods
      1. 2.1. Study site
      2. 2.2. Core sampling
      3. 2.3. CT scanning
    3. 3. Results
    4. 4. Discussion
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  48. Neutron Imaging Methods in Geoscience
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Method
      1. 2.1. Image forming process
      2. 2.2. Neutron sources
      3. 2.3. Neutron imaging beamlines
      4. 2.4. Quantitative neutron imaging
    3. 3. Comparing neutron and X-ray imaging
    4. 4. Applications
      1. 4.1. Water movements and real-time imaging
      2. 4.2. Minerals
      3. 4.3. Clays
      4. 4.4. Concrete
    5. 5. Neutron imaging world-wide
    6. 6. Summary
    7. 7. Acknowledgements
    8. 8. References
  49. Progress Towards Neutron Tomography at the US Spallation Neutron Source
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Spallation Neutron Source and proposed VENUS tomography beamline
      1. 2.1. Properties of neutrons and time-of-flight imaging
      2. 2.2. Workshops and user community input
      3. 2.3. Conceptional design of the VENUS beamline
    3. 3. Acknowledgments
    4. 4. References
  50. Synchrotron X-ray Micro-Tomography and Geological CO2 Sequestration
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Description of beamline 8.3.2
      1. 2.1. Multi-energy imaging
    3. 3. Imaging of Frio sandstone
      1. 3.1. Maximal inscribed spheres calculation
      2. 3.2. Simulation of CO2 distribution in Frio sandstone
    4. 4. Imaging of CaCO3 precipitation
    5. 5. Conclusions
    6. 6. Acknowledgements
    7. 7. References
  51. Residual CO2 Saturation Distributions in Rock Samples Measured by X-ray CT
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experiments
      1. 2.1. Rock samples
      2. 2.2. Experimental setup/procedure
    3. 3. Results
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. Acknowledgements
    6. 6. References
  52. X-ray CT Imaging of Coal for Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experimental
    3. 3. Results
      1. 3.1. Coal heterogeneities
      2. 3.2. Coal compressibilities
      3. 3.3. Calibration of CT measurements of carbon dioxide content
      4. 3.4. Carbon dioxide sorption and density histograms
      5. 3.5. Carbon dioxide diffusion
    4. 4. Conclusion
    5. 5. References
  53. Comparison of X-ray CT and Discrete Element Method in the Evaluation of Tunnel Face Failure
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Methods
      1. 2.1. Experimental process
      2. 2.2. Numerical model and process
    3. 3. Comparison and discussion
      1. 3.1. Face failure visualization
      2. 3.2. Effect of particle size
    4. 4. Conclusion
    5. 5. Acknowledgements
    6. 6. References
  54. Plugging Mechanism of Open-Ended Piles
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Visualization of the plugging phenomenon
    3. 3. Ground behavior around the pile toe
    4. 4. Deformation analysis using PIV
    5. 5. Expected plugging mechanism of open-ended piles
    6. 6. Conclusions
    7. 7. References
  55. Development of a Bending Test Apparatus for Quasi-dynamical Evaluation of a Clayey Soil Using X-ray CT Image Analysis
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Experimental method
      1. 2.1. Materials
      2. 2.2. New bending test apparatus
    3. 3. Results and discussion
      1. 3.1. Check the performance of the bending test apparatus
      2. 3.2. Load-displacement relationship
      3. 3.3. X-ray CT image
      4. 3.4. Visualization of 3D image of low density area extracted
    4. 4. Conclusions
    5. 5. References
  56. Author Index