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Advances in Biorefineries

Book Description

Biorefineries are an essential technology in converting biomass into biofuels or other useful materials. Advances in Biorefineries provides a comprehensive overview of biorefining processing techniques and technologies and the biofuels and other materials produced.

Part one focuses on methods of optimising the biorefining process and assessing its environmental and economic impact. It also looks at current and developing technologies for producing value-added materials. Part two goes on to explore these materials with a focus on biofuels and other value added products. It considers the properties, limitations and practical applications of these products and how they can be used to meet the increasing demand for renewable and sustainable fuels as an alternative to fossil fuels.

Advances in Biorefineries will be a standard reference for biorefinery/process engineers, industrial biochemists/chemists, biomass/waste scientists and researchers and academics in the field.



  • Provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the advanced biomass recovery and conversion processes used in biorefineries
  • Reviews developments in biorefining processes
  • Discusses the wide range of added value products from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contributor contact details
  5. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Development and optimisation of biorefining processes
    1. 1. Green chemistry, biorefineries and second generation strategies for re-use of waste: an overview
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Introduction to biorefineries
      4. 1.3 New renewable feedstocks
      5. 1.4 Conclusion and future trends
      6. 1.5 Sources of further information and advice
      7. 1.6 References
    2. 2. Techno-economic assessment (TEA) of advanced biochemical and thermochemical biorefineries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Biorefinery economic assessment
      4. 2.3 Trade of biomass and subsidies
      5. 2.4 Market establishment: national/regional facilities
      6. 2.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 2.6 References
    3. 3. Environmental and sustainability assessment of biorefineries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Methodological foundations of environmental and sustainability assessment of technologies
      4. 3.3 Life cycle assessment (LCA) for biorefineries
      5. 3.4 Sustainability issues: synopsis of results from assessment of economic and social aspects
      6. 3.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 3.6 References
    4. 4. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Microalgae biomass for biorefinery systems
      4. 4.3 Planning, design and development of biorefinery systems
      5. 4.4 Case study: a second generation lignocellulosic biorefinery (Inbicon® Biorefinery)
      6. 4.5 Upgrading biorefinery operations
      7. 4.6 Optimising biorefinery processes using process analysis
      8. 4.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 4.8 References
    5. 5. Current and emerging separations technologies in biorefining
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Separations technologies
      4. 5.3 Removal of impurities from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate liquor for production of cellulosic sugars
      5. 5.4 Glycerin desalting as a value added co-product from biodiesel production
      6. 5.5 Succinic acid production
      7. 5.6 Solvent extraction: the example of recovery of value added proteins from distiller’s grains and solubles (DGS)
      8. 5.7 Biofuels recovery by solvent extraction in an ionic liquid assisted membrane contactor
      9. 5.8 Emerging trends in separations technology for advanced biofuels
      10. 5.9 Performance indices
      11. 5.10 Conclusion
      12. 5.11 Acknowledgements
      13. 5.12 References
    6. 6. Catalytic processes and catalyst development in biorefining
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Catalysts for depolymerization of biomass
      4. 6.3 Catalysts for biomass products upgrading
      5. 6.4 Conclusion and future trends
      6. 6.5 References
    7. 7. Enzymatic processes and enzyme development in biorefining
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Biochemical conversion
      4. 7.3 Development of enzyme technology and techniques
      5. 7.4 Optimizing enzymes
      6. 7.5 Benchmarking enzymes and enzymatic conversion processes
      7. 7.6 Advantages and limitations of techniques
      8. 7.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 7.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 7.9 References
    8. 8. Biomass pretreatment for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Process configurations for biofuel production
      4. 8.3 Models for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP)
      5. 8.4 Microorganisms, enzyme systems, and bioenergetics of CBP
      6. 8.5 Organism development
      7. 8.6 Conclusion
      8. 8.7 References
    9. 9. Developments in bioethanol fuel-focused biorefineries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Ethanol biorefineries
      4. 9.3 The lignocellulose to ethanol process
      5. 9.4 Design options for biorefining processes
      6. 9.5 Process intensification: increasing the dry-matter content
      7. 9.6 Different types of ethanol biorefineries
      8. 9.7 Future trends
      9. 9.8 Conclusion
      10. 9.9 Sources of further information and advice
      11. 9.10 References
    10. 10. Developments in cereal-based biorefineries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Wheat-based biorefineries
      4. 10.3 Fuel ethanol production from wheat
      5. 10.4 Succinic acid production from wheat
      6. 10.5 Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from wheat
      7. 10.6 Utilization of wheat straw
      8. 10.7 Conclusion and future trends
      9. 10.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 10.9 Acknowledgements
      11. 10.10 References
    11. 11. Developments in grass-/forage-based biorefineries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Overview of grass-/forage-based biorefineries
      4. 11.3 Field to biorefinery – impact of herbage chemical composition
      5. 11.4 Green biorefinery products
      6. 11.5 Acknowledgements
      7. 11.6 References
    12. 12. Developments in glycerol byproduct-based biorefineries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Composition and purification of glycerol produced from biodiesel
      4. 12.3 Applications of glycerol in the fuel sector
      5. 12.4 Glycerol as raw material for the chemical industry
      6. 12.5 Conclusions and future trends
      7. 12.6 Sources of further information
      8. 12.7 References
  9. Part II: Biofuels and other added value products from biorefineries
    1. 13. Improving the use of liquid biofuels in internal combustion engines
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Competing fuels and energy carriers
      4. 13.3 Market penetration of liquid biofuels
      5. 13.4 Use of liquid biofuels in internal combustion engines
      6. 13.5 Vehicle and blending technologies for alcohol fuels and gasoline
      7. 13.6 Future provision of renewable liquid fuels
      8. 13.7 Conclusion
      9. 13.8 Acknowledgements
      10. 13.9 References and further reading
      11. 13.10 Appendix: List of abbreviations
    2. 14. Biodiesel and renewable diesel production methods
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Overview of biodiesel and renewable diesel
      4. 14.3 Renewable diesel production routes
      5. 14.4 Biodiesel production routes
      6. 14.5 Traditional and emerging feedstocks
      7. 14.6 Feedstock quality issues
      8. 14.7 Advantages and limitations of biodiesel
      9. 14.8 Conclusion and future trends
      10. 14.9 Sources of further information and advice
      11. 14.10 References
    3. 15. Biomethane and biohydrogen production via anaerobic digestion/fermentation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Basic principles of biogas and hydrogen production
      4. 15.3 Biogas and biohydrogen production: technological aspects
      5. 15.4 Production of biogas (methane) and biohydrogen from different feedstocks
      6. 15.5 Current status and limitations
      7. 15.6 Future trends
      8. 15.7 Sources of further information and advice
      9. 15.8 References
    4. 16. The production and application of biochar in soils
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Effects of application of biochar to soil
      4. 16.3 Agricultural uses of biochar
      5. 6.4 Production of biochar
      6. 16.5 Larger-scale commercial production of biochar
      7. 16.6 Testing biochar properties
      8. 16.7 Markets and uses for biochar
      9. 16.8 Conclusion and future trends
      10. 16.9 References
      11. 6.10 Appendix: IBI; Standardized product definition and product testing guidelines for biochar used in soil
    5. 17. Development, properties and applications of high-performance biolubricants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Markets for lubricants
      4. 17.3 Biolubricant performance requirements
      5. 17.4 Applications of biolubricants
      6. 17.5 Feedstocks for biolubricants: key properties
      7. 17.6 Chemical modifications of biolubricant feedstocks
      8. 17.7 Future trends
      9. 17.8 Conclusion
      10. 17.9 Acknowledgements
      11. 17.10 References
    6. 18. Bio-based nutraceuticals from biorefining
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Lipid-based nutraceuticals
      4. 18.3 Protein and peptide-based nutraceuticals
      5. 18.4 Carbohydrate-based nutraceuticals
      6. 18.5 Other nutraceuticals
      7. 18.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 18.7 References
    7. 19. Bio-based chemicals from biorefining: carbohydrate conversion and utilisation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Sustainable carbohydrate sources
      4. 19.3 Chemical hydrolysis of cellulose to sugars
      5. 19.4 Types and properties of carbohydrate-based chemicals
      6. 19.5 Routes to market for bio-based feedstocks
      7. 19.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 19.7 Sources of further information and advice
      9. 19.8 References
    8. 20. Bio-based chemicals from biorefining: lignin conversion and utilisation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Structure and properties of lignin
      4. 20.3 Traditional processes for the production of lignin
      5. 20.4 Emerging processes for the production of lignin
      6. 20.5 Applications of lignin and lignin-based products: an overview
      7. 20.6 Future trends
      8. 20.7 Sources of further information and advice
      9. 20.8 References
    9. 21. Bio-based chemicals from biorefining: lipid and wax conversion and utilization
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Types and properties of lipids and waxes
      4. 21.3 Sources of lipids and waxes
      5. 21.4 Methods to extract and analyze lipids and waxes
      6. 21.5 Utilization of lipids and waxes
      7. 21.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 21.7 References
    10. 22. Bio-based chemicals from biorefining: protein conversion and utilisation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Protein and amino acid sources derived from biofuel production
      4. 22.3 Protein isolation, hydrolysis and isolation of amino acid chemical feedstocks
      5. 22.4 (Bio)chemical conversion of amino acids to platform and speciality chemicals
      6. 22.5 Alternative and novel feedstocks and production routes
      7. 22.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 22.7 References
    11. 23. Types, processing and properties of bioadhesives for wood and fibers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Tannin adhesives
      4. 23.3 Lignin adhesives
      5. 23.4 Mixed tannin-lignin adhesives
      6. 23.5 Protein adhesives
      7. 23.6 Carbohydrate adhesives
      8. 23.7 Unsaturated oil adhesives
      9. 23.8 Wood welding without adhesives
      10. 23.9 Conclusion and future trends
      11. 23.10 References
    12. 24. Types, properties and processing of bio-based animal feed
      1. Abstract:
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Background
      4. 24.3 Types and properties of bio-based feed ingredients
      5. 24.4 Impact of processing technology on co-product quality
      6. 24.5 Improving feedstocks, processes and yields
      7. 24.6 Regulatory issues
      8. 24.7 Future trends
      9. 24.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 24.9 References
    13. 25. The use of biomass to produce bio-based composites and building materials
      1. Abstract:
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Fibrous plants
      4. 25.3 Fiber types and isolation
      5. 25.6 Improving performance properties
      6. 25.7 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 25.8 Sources of further information and advice
      8. 25.9 References
    14. 26. The use of biomass for packaging films and coatings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 26.1 Introduction
      3. 26.2 Components of packaging films and coatings from the biomass
      4. 26.3 Processes for producing bio-based films
      5. 26.4 Processes for producing edible coatings
      6. 26.5 Products from biomass as film and/or coating matrices
      7. 26.6 Products from biomass as film plasticizers
      8. 26.7 Products from biomass as crosslinking agents for packaging materials
      9. 26.8 Products from biomass as reinforcements for packaging materials
      10. 26.9 Future trends
      11. 26.10 Conclusion
      12. 26.11 Acknowledgements
      13. 26.12 References
  10. Index