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Advanced Topics in Quantum Field Theory by M. Shifman

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6

Isotropic (anti)ferromagnet: O(3) sigma model and extensions, including CP(N − 1)

It all started with the Heisenberg O(3) sigma model. — A geometric representation, or from O(3) to CP(1). — Generalization to CP(N − 1) models. — Gauged formulation. — Calculation of the Gell-Mann–Low or β function. — Continuous symmetries cannot be spontaneously broken in two dimensions.

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26 O(3) sigma model

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26.1 The field and O(3) model

The O(3) sigma model ...

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