Vortices and flux tubes (strings)
Global, local, and (in passing) semilocal vortices. — Abelian and non-Abelian strings. — How they gravitate. — Index theorem. — Fermion zero modes on the string.
10 Vortices and strings
In field theory solitons of a “curly type” are called vortices, for a good reason. They are close relatives of tornadoes and of the vortices on a water surface that are a matter of every-day experience. Vortices can develop in field theories with spontaneously broken continuous symmetries in which vacuum manifolds have a ...