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Advanced Techniques in Multimedia Watermarking: Image, Video and Audio Applications

Book Description

Advanced Techniques in Multimedia Watermarking: Image, Video and Audio Applications introduces readers to state-of-the-art research in multimedia watermarking. Covering new advancements in digital image watermarking and techniques for implementation and optimization across different media, this book is a valuable companion for professionals and researchers working in areas such as document watermarking, multimedia fingerprinting, information hiding, secured e-commerce, copyright protection, and hardware implementation of real-time multimedia watermarking.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
  5. 1. Digital Image Watermarking
    1. 1. Two Spatial Watermarking Techniques for Digital Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE FOR 2D IMAGES
        1. Proposition 1
          1. Proof
        2. Proposition 2
          1. Proof
      5. WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE FOR 3D IMAGES
        1. Proposition 3
          1. Proof
        2. Proposition 4
          1. Proof
        3. Observation 1
      6. DISCUSSON AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. 2. Data Secrecy: An FFT Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Background
      3. SIGNIFICANCE OF MAGNITUDE AND PHASE
        1. Fourier Magnitude Information Hiding
        2. Recovery of Hidden Information
      4. SECURITY LEVELS
        1. Robustness to Stego Medium Tampering
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 3. Color in Image Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COLOR IN IMAGE WATERMARKING: ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
      4. COLOR WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES
        1. Color Watermarking Through Color Histograms and Quantization
        2. Color Watermarking Through the Spatial Domain
        3. Color Watermarking Through a Transform Domain
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 4. Geometric Distortions-Invariant Digital Watermarking Using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform and Discrete Orthogonal Image Moments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOME SYSTEM PRELIMINARIES
        1. Geometric Distortions and Transformations for Digital Images
          1. Scaling
          2. Rotation
          3. Translation
          4. Flipping
          5. Mixed Transformations
        2. Scale-Invariant Feature Transform
          1. Scale-Space Extrema Detection
          2. Keypoint Localization
          3. Orientation Assignment
          4. SIFT Descriptor Computation
        3. Image Moments
        4. The Moment Generating Function
        5. Non-Orthogonal Moments
        6. Cartesian Moments
        7. Centralized Moments
        8. Image Reconstruction
        9. Symmetry Properties
          1. Hu's Invariant Set
          2. Orthogonal Moments
          3. Moment Noise Sensitivity
      4. ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS AND DISCRETE ORTHOGONAL MOMENTS FOR DIGITAL IMAGES
        1. Discrete Orthogonal Polynomials and Discrete Orthogonal Moments
          1. Discrete Orthogonal Polynomials
          2. Pochhammer Symbol
          3. Hypergeometric Series
          4. Orthogonality Condition
          5. Weighted Polynomials
          6. Discrete Moments
          7. Discrete Orthogonal Moments
          8. Image Reconstruction
        2. Krawtchouk Polynomials, Krawtchouk Moments, and Krawtchouk Moment Invariants
        3. Krawtchouk Polynomials and Weighted Krawtchouk Polynomials
          1. Krawtchouk Moments
          2. Image Reconstruction Using Krawtchouk Moments
          3. Krawtchouk Moment Invariants
        4. Tchebichef Polynomials, Tchebichef Moments, and Tchebichef Moment Invariants
          1. Tchebichef Polynomials and Weighted Tchebichef Polynomials
          2. Tchebichef Moments
          3. Image Reconstruction Using Tchebichef Moments
          4. Tchebichef Moment Invariants
        5. Hahn Polynomials, Hahn Moments, and Hahn Moment Invariants
          1. Hahn Polynomials and Weighted Hahn Polynomials
          2. Hahn Moments
          3. Image Reconstruction Using Hahn Moments
          4. Hahn Moment Invariants
        6. Connection of Hahn Moments with Tchebichef and Krawtchouk Moments
          1. The Relation between Weighted Hahn and Weighted Tchebichef Polynomials
          2. The Relation between Weighted Hahn and Weighted Krawtchouk Polynomials
      5. WATERMARK EMBEDDING AND DETECTION METHODOLOGY
        1. Watermark Pre-Processing and Construction
        2. System-I: Watermarking Method Based on Scale-Invariant Feature Transform with Bounding-Box and Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments
          1. Watermark Embedding Procedure
          2. Watermark Detection Procedure
        3. System-II: Watermarking Method Based on Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments
          1. Watermark Embedding Procedure
          2. Watermark Detection Procedure
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
        1. Performance of the Watermarking System - I
          1. Robustness against Signal Processing and Geometric Attacks
        2. Performance of the Watermarking System-II
          1. Estimation of Geometric Distortion Parameters
          2. Watermark Detection Results
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  6. 2. Video, Audio, Text, and 3D Mesh Watermarking
    1. 5. From Watermarking to In-Band Enrichment: Theoretical and Applicative Trends
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. CAPACITY EVALUATION
        1. 3.1 Continuous Case
          1. The Continuous Blahut-Arimoto Algorithm
          2. Gaussian Mixture-Based Capacity Evaluation (GMC)
        2. 3.2 Discrete Case
      5. 4. QUANTITATIVE RESULTS
        1. 4.1 Continuous Case
        2. 4.2 Discrete Case
      6. 5. WATERMARKING CAPACITY COMPUTATION BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE
      7. 6. IN-BAND ENRICHMENT APPLICATIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    2. 6. Audio Watermarking: State-of-the-Art
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. AUDIO WATERMARKING APPLICATIONS
        1. 2.1 Ownership Protection
        2. 2.2 Authentication and Tampering Detection
        3. 2.3 Proof of Ownership
        4. 2.4 Fingerprinting
        5. 2.5 Broadcast Monitoring
        6. 2.6 Copy Control and Access Control
      4. 3. AUDIO WATERMARKING REQUIREMENTS
        1. 3.1 Perceptual Transparency
        2. 3.2 Watermark Robustness
        3. 3.3 Watermark Bit Rate
      5. 4. ATTACKS AGAINST AUDIO WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS
      6. 5. AUDIO WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS
        1. 5.1 Least Significant Bit Coding
        2. 5.2 Watermarking the Phase of the Host Signal
          1. Phase Coding
          2. Phase Modulation
        3. 5.3 Echo Hiding
        4. 5.4 Spread Spectrum
        5. 5.5 Patchwork Method
      7. REFERENCES
      8. 6. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 7. Watermarking Audio Signals for Copyright Protection Using ICA
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Audio Watermarking
        2. Independent Component Analysis
        3. Application of ICA to Single Channel Time Series Data
      4. COVER DATA AND THE WATERMARK
      5. METHODOLOGY
        1. Watermark Embedding Technique
          1. Selection of Secret Keys Used to Embed/Estimate the Watermark
          2. Watermark Estimation Technique
      6. EMBEDDING WATERMARKS EXPERIMENT
        1. Independent Component Analysis
        2. Discrete Wavelet Transform
      7. RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 8. Deterring Text Document Piracy with Text Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT
        1. Methods of Implementing the DRM
          1. Hardware Solutions
          2. Software Solutions
        2. Limitation in DRM Implementation
      4. DIGITAL WATERMARKING
      5. WATERMARK COMPOSITION AND CLASSIFICATION
        1. Watermark Information and Constraints
          1. Content Information
          2. Content Type
          3. Host Derived
          4. Host Structure Directed
          5. Colouring
          6. Scrambling
          7. Sensitivity
          8. Perceptibility
        2. Watermark Objectives
          1. Ownership Assertion
          2. Authentication and Integrity Verification
          3. Asset Information
          4. Copyright Communication and Content Protection
          5. Playback Control and Copy Protection
          6. Forensic Tracking
          7. Classification and Filtering Using Labeling
          8. Remote Triggering
      6. DOCUMENT STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION
        1. Profiling
        2. Document Spatial Model and Feature Extraction
      7. TEXT WATERMARKING ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
        1. Readability
        2. Document Structure
        3. Language
          1. Grammar
          2. Characters Set
        4. Watermarking Information
        5. Channel Capacity
        6. Persistence
        7. Watermarking Techniques
        8. Pricing and Complexity
        9. Codification of Regulations
        10. Watermark Standardizations
      8. BACKGROUND: WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS AND TECHNIQUES
        1. A Revisit to Past
          1. Pixel Intensity Modulation
          2. Block-Wise Coding Scheme
        2. Font Feature Coding
          1. Character Displacement and Diacritics Coding
          2. Space Modulation
        3. Blind coding technique
        4. Assumption
        5. Early DRM Implementation for Online Archives
      9. CLASSIFICATION OF TEXT WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES
        1. Text Document Image Watermarking
          1. Format Coding
          2. Feature Coding
          3. Space Coding
        2. Text Document Watermarking
          1. Diacritic Coding
          2. Space Coding
          3. Font Feature Coding
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Unified Document Archive Representation
        2. Watermark Design
        3. Archive Rights Description
        4. Standardization
        5. Portability and Interoperability
        6. Benchmarks
        7. Channel Capacity
        8. Trust Model
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. 9. Blind Watermarking of Three-Dimensional Meshes: Review, Recent Advances and Future Opportunities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Background Knowledge on Polygonal Meshes
        2. Three-Dimensional Mesh Watermarking and Its Applications
        3. Organization of the Chapter
      3. REVIEW ON BLIND MESH WATERMARKING
        1. Difficulties and Classification
        2. Fragile Techniques
          1. Fragile Techniques in Spatial Domain
        3. Fragile Techniques in Spatial Domain Modifying the Geometry
        4. Fragile Techniques in Spatial Domain Modifying the Connectivity
          1. Fragile Techniques in Transform Domain
        5. High-Capacity Techniques
        6. Robust Techniques
          1. Robust Techniques in Spatial Domain
          2. Robust Techniques in Transform Domain
        7. Summary
      4. HIERARCHICAL WATERMARKING OF SEMI-REGULAR MESHES
        1. Overview of the Hierarchical Framework
        2. Brief Introduction to Scalar Costa Scheme
        3. The Robust Watermark
        4. The High-Capacity Watermark
        5. The Fragile Watermark
        6. Experimental Results
        7. Summary and Comparisons
      5. FUTURE WORKING DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. 3. Multimedia Watermarking
    1. 10. A Unified Approach Towards Multimedia Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE DWT AND SVD TRANSFORMS
        1. DWT and its Relevance to Multimedia Watermarking
          1. One-Dimensional DWT
          2. Two-Dimensional DWT
        2. SVD and its Relevance to Multimedia Watermarking
      4. IMAGE WATERMARKING
        1. Watermark Embedding Procedure
        2. Watermark Extraction Procedure
        3. Results and Performance Evaluation
      5. VIDEO WATERMARKING
        1. Watermark Embedding Procedure
        2. Watermark Extraction Procedure
        3. Results and Performance Evaluation
      6. AUDIO WATERMARKING
        1. Watermark Embedding Procedure
        2. Watermark Extraction Procedure
        3. Results and Performance Evaluation
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 11. Data Hiding Schemes Based on Singular Value Decomposition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The SvD Transform
          1. The Properties of the SVD Transform
      4. APPLICATION OF THE SVD TRANSFORM
        1. Using Singular values Only
          1. Steganographic Techniques
        2. Blind Schemes
        3. Semi-Blind Schemes
          1. Watermarking Techniques
        4. Non-Blind Schemes
        5. Semi-Blind Schemes
        6. Blind Schemes
        7. Using Singular Vectors Only
          1. Steganographic Techniques
          2. Watermarking Techniques
        8. Combining SVD with Other Transforms
          1. Watermarking Techniques
        9. Non-Blind Schemes
        10. Semi-Blind Schemes
        11. Blind Schemes
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 12. Feature Based Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Embedding Phase
        2. The Wavelet Method
        3. The Extraction Phase
        4. Digital Watermarks and Attacks
          1. Blind Watermarking Attacks
      4. THE FEATURE BASED APPROACH
        1. Feature Detectors
          1. The Harris Corner Detector
          2. The SIFT Method
      5. SHAPE BASED WATERMARKING
        1. Invariant Domains
        2. Shape Watermarking
        3. Shape Theory
          1. Veronese-Whitney Mapping
          2. Locating the Watermark Δ
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. 3D Wavelets
        2. Watermarking a Relational Database
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 13. Techniques for Multiple Watermarking
      1. 1. ABSTRACT
      2. 2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NOTATION
      4. 3. BACKGROUND ON MULTIPLE WATERMARKING
      5. 4. WATERMARKING AS DIRTY PAPER CODING
        1. Watermarking Viewed as Side-Informed Communication
        2. Review of Some Embedding Schemes for One Watermark
      6. 5. MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR MULTIPLE WATERMARKING
        1. A Broadcast Setup for Multiple Watermarking
        2. A Multiaccess Setup for Multiple Watermarking
      7. 6. MULTIPLE WATERMARKING: PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
        1. Broadcast-Aware Coding for Multiple Watermarking
          1. Feasible Embedding Rate Region
          2. Bit Error Rate Analysis and Discussion
        2. MAC-Aware Coding for Multiple Watermarking
          1. Feasible Embedding Rate Region
          2. Bit Error Rate Analysis and Discussion
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. 14. Copyright Protection in the Distribution of Multimedia Digital Objects in Internet
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STRATEGIES FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION
        1. Problems of the Strategies for Copyright Protection
      4. SYSTEMS FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION BASED ON WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES
        1. Requirements
        2. Protocols for Distribution of Digital Contents with Copyright Protection
        3. Asymmetric Fingerprinting Protocols
          1. The TTP Watermarking Protocol
          2. The Buyer-Seller Protocol
          3. ECMS (Electronic Copyright Management System) Model
          4. Asymmetric Fingerprint Model with a TTP
          5. Distribution Models Derived from the Previous Ones
            1. The Buyer-Reseller Watermarking Protocol
            2. An Enhanced Secure Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol
            3. An Efficient and Anonymous Buyer-Seller Protocol
            4. Secure Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol
            5. A Privacy Preserving Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol with Semi-Trust Third Party
            6. A Practical Digital Watermarking Protocol Based on PKI-CA
            7. Other Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols
            8. A New Watermarking Protocol for Copyright Protection
            9. SecDP Protocol
          6. Other Approaches
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. 4. Optimization and Hardware Implementation of Watermarking Algorithms
    1. 15. Optimization in Digital Watermarking Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Optimization in Watermarking: Analysis from the Mathematical Perspective
        2. Spread Spectrum Watermarking
      4. ZERO-RATE OPTIMIZED SS WATERMARK SYSTEM: REDUCTION IN HSI
      5. ZERO-RATE OPTIMIZED SS WATERMARK SYSTEM: INCREASE IN WHC
      6. OPTIMIZATION IN QUANTIZATION INDEX MODULATION WATERMARKING
      7. SPREAD TRANSFORM WATERMARKING
        1. Trellis Coded Quantization and Watermarking
      8. SOFT COMPUTING BASED OPTIMIZED WATERMARKING
        1. Soft Computing Based Spatial/Original Domain Optimized Watermarking
          1. Calculation of A
          2. Calculation of μ
      9. SOFT COMPUTING BASED ADVANCED SPATIAL/ORIGINAL DOMAIN OPTIMIZED WATERMARKING
      10. SOFT COMPUTING BASED OPTIMIZED WATERMARKING USING UNITRARY TRANSFORM
      11. WAVELETS AND SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES IN OPTIMIZED WATERMARKING
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 16. Application of Error Control Coding for Multimedia Watermarking Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Watermarking as a Communication Problem Perspective
        2. Watermarking Detectors / Decoders
        3. Types of Errors
        4. Types of Codes Useful for Watermarking
          1. Block Codes and Repetition Codes
            1. Basic Coding Model
            2. Minimum Distance Decoding (MD)
            3. Redundancy, Code Rate and Perfect Codes
          2. Reed Solomon Code (RS)
          3. Low Density Parity Check Codes (LDPC) LDPC codes
          4. Convolution Codes
      4. CURRENT ART OF CHANNEL CODING WITH PERSPECTIVE TO WATERMARKING
        1. Robustness and Copyright Protection
        2. Image Tampering and Content Authentication
        3. Active Steganography
        4. Design Criteria for Codes in Watermarking Applications
      5. PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF WATERMARKING SCHEME
        1. Coding for Error Control
        2. Watermark Embedding Algorithm
        3. Watermark Extraction Algorithm
        4. Results
        5. Observations
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 17. Hardware Implementations of Image/Video Watermarking Algorithms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES
      5. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATIONS OF IMAGE WATERMARKING
        1. Spatial Domain Implementations
          1. Visible Watermarking Implementations
          2. Invisible Watermarking Implementations
        2. Frequency Domain Implementations
          1. DCT Domain Implementations
          2. DWT Domain Implementations
          3. Walsh Transform Domain
      6. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATIONS OF VIDEO WATERMARKING
        1. Spatial Domain Implementations
          1. Invisible Video Watermarking Implementations
        2. Frequency Domain Implementations
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 18. Spread Spectrum Watermarking: Implementation in FPGA
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Review of Hardware Based Watermarking
        2. Theory of Spread Spectrum Watermarking
        3. Special Requirements of Hardware Design And Complexity
      4. VLSI ARCHITECTURE OF SPATIAL DOMAIN SPREAD SPECTRUM WATERMARKING
        1. Watermarking Algorithm
          1. Message Encoding and Watermark Embedding
          2. Watermark Dehiding and Message Decoding
        2. Digital Design of Proposed Method
          1. Digital Design of Watermark Embedding
          2. Digital Design of Watermark Decoding
      5. VLSI ARCHITECTURE OF FWT BASED SS WATERMARKING
        1. VLSI Design
          1. Architecture for Watermark Embedding Unit
            1. (1) Walsh Transform Module
            2. (2) Code Generation Module
            3. (3) Data Embedding Module
            4. (4) Inverse Walsh transform module
          2. Architecture for Watermark Decoding Unit
        2. (1) Walsh Transform Module
        3. (2) Correlation Calculation Module
        4. (3) Mean Correlation and Threshold Calculation Module
      6. DIGITAL DESIGN OF BIORTHOGONAL WAVELET BASED HILBERT TRANSFORM
      7. HARDWARE DESIGN ASPECTS: CHALLENGES FOR WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors