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Advanced Solid State Physics, Second Edition by Philip Phillips

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12   Superconductivity in metals

In this chapter we focus on the phenomenon of superconductivity and the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) (BCS1957) theory behind it. Superconductivity obtains when a finite fraction of the conduction electrons in a metal condense into a quantum state characterized by a unique quantum-mechanical phase. The specific value of the quantum-mechanical phase varies from one superconductor to another. The locking in of the phase of a number of electrons on the order of Avogadro’s number ensures the rigidity of the superconducting state. For example, electrons in the condensate find it impossible to move individually. Rather, the whole condensate moves from one end of the sample to the other as a single unit. Likewise, ...

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