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Advanced Software Testing - Vol. 2, 2nd Edition

Book Description

This book teaches test managers what they need to know to achieve advanced skills in test estimation, test planning, test monitoring, and test control. Readers will learn how to define the overall testing goals and strategies for the systems being tested.

This hands-on, exercise-rich book provides experience with planning, scheduling, and tracking these tasks. You'll be able to describe and organize the necessary activities as well as learn to select, acquire, and assign adequate resources for testing tasks. You'll learn how to form, organize, and lead testing teams, and master the organizing of communication among the members of the testing teams, and between the testing teams and all the other stakeholders. Additionally, you'll learn how to justify decisions and provide adequate reporting information where applicable.

This book will help you prepare for the ISTQB Advanced Test Manager exam. Included are sample exam questions, at the appropriate level of difficulty, for most of the learning objectives covered by the ISTQB Advanced Level Syllabus. The ISTQB certification program is the leading software tester certification program in the world. With about 300,000 certificate holders and a global presence in over 50 countries, you can be confident in the value and international stature that the Advanced Test Manager certificate can offer you.

This second edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the new ISTQB Advanced Test Manager 2012 Syllabus, and the latest ISTQB Glossary. This edition reflects Rex Black's unique insights into these changes, as he was one of the main participants in the ISTQB Advanced Level Working Group.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. Table of Contents
  5. Introduction
  6. 1 Testing Process
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Test Planning, Monitoring, and Control
      1. Test Planning
      2. Planning for Testing in Sequential Models
      3. Planning for Testing in Iterative Models
      4. Planning for Testing in Agile Models
      5. Planning for Testing in Spiral Models
      6. Test Control and Monitoring
      7. Example: Lifecycle-Driven Entry Criteria
      8. Test Planning, Monitoring, and Control Exercise
      9. Test Planning, Monitoring, and Control Debrief
    3. 1.3 Test Analysis
      1. Test Analysis and Design
      2. Example: SIT Condition Traceability
      3. How Much Detail in Test Conditions?
      4. Advantages of Detailed Test Conditions
      5. Using Detailed Test Conditions
      6. Disadvantages of Detailed Test Conditions
      7. Using Cursory Test Conditions
      8. Example: Test Conditions Level of Detail
      9. Test Analysis Exercise
      10. Test Analysis Debrief
    4. 1.4 Test Design
      1. Test Design and Implementation
      2. Traceability
      3. Inputs and Outputs for Test Design
      4. Logical or Concrete Test Cases
      5. Sequential or Iterative Process
      6. Example: ISO 61508 Testing Implications
      7. Traceability Exercise
      8. Traceability Debrief
    5. 1.5 Test Implementation
      1. Test Implementation and Execution
      2. Test Execution Schedule
      3. Ready for Test Execution?
      4. Example: Preconditions for Test Execution
      5. Detail and Complexity
      6. Example: Regulated System
      7. Advantages of Early Implementation
      8. Disadvantages of Early Implementation
      9. Example: Early Test Implementation
      10. Execution Schedule Exercise
      11. Execution Schedule Debrief
    6. 1.6 Test Execution
      1. Test Execution and Closure
      2. Blending Reactive Test Strategies
      3. Test Manager’s Role during Execution
      4. Example: Simple Progress Monitoring
      5. Metrics Exercise
      6. Metrics Debrief
    7. 1.7 Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting
      1. Information Collection
      2. Frequency and Detail
      3. Example: Sophisticated Results Reporting
    8. 1.8 Test Closure Activities
      1. Test Completion Check
      2. Test Artifacts Handover
      3. Lessons Learned
      4. Archiving
      5. Example: Lessons Learned
      6. Example: Delivery of Work Products
      7. Retrospective Analysis
      8. Don’t Forget!
      9. Retrospective Exercise
      10. Retrospective Debrief
    9. 1.9 Sample Exam Questions
  7. 2 Test Management
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Test Management
      1. Testing Stakeholders
      2. Typical Testing Stakeholders
      3. Other Activities and Work Products
      4. Testing on Agile Projects
      5. Example: Optimizing Test Activities
      6. Testing Touchpoints
      7. Testing in the Lifecycle
      8. System Test Process Alignment for V-Model
      9. Additional Test Levels
      10. Well-Defined Test Levels
      11. Managing Nonfunctional Testing
      12. Example: Managing Performance Quality Risks throughout the Lifecycle
      13. Managing Experience-Based Testing
      14. Experience-Based Testing Sessions
      15. Example: Exploratory Testing
      16. Test Management in Context Exercise
      17. Test Management in Context Debrief
    3. 2.3 Risk-Based Testing and Other Approaches for Test Prioritization and Effort Allocation
      1. Test Prioritization and Effort Allocation
      2. Risk-Based Testing
      3. Risk-Based Testing Process
      4. Risk-Based Testing Participants
      5. Risk Identification
      6. Risk Assessment
      7. Likelihood and Impact Factors
      8. Quantitative or Qualitative?
      9. Example: DO 178B Mandated Coverage
      10. Risk Mitigation
      11. Risk Management in the Lifecycle
      12. Risk Management during Test Execution
      13. Lightweight Risk-Based Testing Techniques
      14. A Risk Catalog Template
      15. Example: Risk Catalog
      16. Other Risk-Based Testing Techniques
      17. Example: FMEA
      18. Tips for Successful Risk-Based Testing
      19. Example: Risk Priority Number Distribution
      20. Measuring the Benefits of Risk-Based Testing
      21. Other Techniques for Test Selection, Prioritization, and Effort Allocation
      22. Example: Blending Risk-Based and Reactive Testing Strategies
      23. Select, Allocate, and Prioritize: In the Process
      24. Functional Quality Risks Analysis Exercise
      25. Functional Quality Risks Analysis Debrief
    4. 2.4 Test Documentation and Other Work Products
      1. Options to Manage Risks
      2. Example: Test-Related Project Risks
      3. Example: Controlling Project Risks
      4. HELLOCARMS Test Project Risks Exercise
      5. HELLOCARMS Test Project Risks Debrief
      6. The ISTQB Test Management Documents
      7. Test Policy
      8. Test Policy Topics
      9. Example: Test Policy
      10. Test Strategy
      11. Types of Test Strategies
      12. Other Contents of Test Strategy Documents
      13. Example: Test Strategy and Activities
      14. Master Test Plan
      15. Contents of the Master Test Plan
      16. Level Test Plan
      17. Other Work Products
      18. The Test Manager’s Role
      19. Case Study: Test Plan for Simple PC App
      20. Case Study: Resources
      21. Case Study: Test Execution Process
      22. Case Study: Use Case and Test Charter
      23. Case Study: Schedule of Milestones
      24. Case Study: Risks and Contingencies
      25. HELLOCARMS Test Plan Exercise
      26. HELLOCARMS Test Plan Debrief
    5. 2.5 Test Estimation
      1. Test Execution Estimation
      2. Estimation Factors
      3. Example: Estimation Factors
      4. Estimation Techniques
      5. Achieving Good Estimation
      6. Some Rules Derived from Jones
      7. Predicting Bug Find/Fix/Confirm Duration
      8. HELLOCARMS Estimation Exercise
      9. HELLOCARMS Estimation Debrief
    6. 2.6 Defining and Using Test Metrics
      1. Using Test Metrics
      2. Dimensions of Test Progress Metrics
      3. Quality Risk and Defect Metrics
      4. Test and Coverage Metrics
      5. Product Risk Metrics
      6. Cumulative Defects Reported/Resolved
      7. Closure Period Trends
      8. Test Case Completion
      9. Test Hours
      10. Improving HELLOCARMS Testing Exercise
      11. Improving HELLOCARMS Testing Debrief
      12. Metrics in the Test Process
      13. Reporting and Using Metrics
      14. Metrics-Based Test Control
      15. HELLOCARMS Test Progress Report Exercise
      16. HELLOCARMS Test Progress Report Debrief
    7. 2.7 Business Value of Testing
      1. Optimizing Test Value
      2. The Values of Testing
      3. Cost of Quality
      4. Example: Cost of Quality ROI
      5. Example: Other Values for Testing
      6. Value of HELLOCARMS Testing Exercise
      7. Value of HELLOCARMS Testing Debrief
    8. 2.8 Distributed, Outsourced, and Insourced Testing
      1. Common Issues
      2. Distributed Issues
      3. Insourced and Outsourced Issues
      4. Trust
      5. Example: Successful Distributed Testing
      6. Example: Unsuccessful Distributed Testing
    9. 2.9 Managing the Application of Industry Standards
      1. Standards and Testing
      2. Test-Relevant Standards
      3. FDA Regulatory Testing Principles
      4. Other Standards
      5. Standards and Templates
      6. Applying Standards
    10. 2.10 Sample Exam Questions
  8. 3 Reviews
    1. 3.1 Introduction
      1. Project Reviews and Review Types
    2. 3.2 Management Reviews and Audits
      1. Audits
      2. Example: Formal Management Review
    3. 3.3 Managing Reviews
      1. What Should We Review and How?
      2. What Should We Measure?
      3. What’s the ROI?
      4. Who Should Review?
      5. How Do We Manage the Risks?
      6. What Must the Review Leader Do?
      7. Review Plan Exercise
      8. Review Plan Debrief
      9. Example: Review Types and Effectiveness
      10. Example: Defects Found in MRD Review
      11. Example: Reaction to MRD Review
    4. 3.4 Metrics for Reviews
      1. Review Product Metrics
      2. Review Process Metrics
      3. Review Metrics Exercise
      4. Review Metrics Debrief
    5. 3.5 Managing Formal Reviews
      1. Formal Review Characteristics
      2. Managing Formal Reviews
      3. Review Exercise
      4. Review Debrief
    6. 3.6 Sample Exam Questions
  9. 4 Defect Management
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Defect Lifecycle and the Software Development Lifecycle
      1. Defect Workflow
      2. Tester Defect Report States
      3. Invalid and Duplicate Defect Reports
      4. Cross-Functional Defect Management
      5. Example: IEEE 1044 Process
      6. Example: IEEE 1044 Lifecycle
      7. Example: Defect Lifecycle
      8. Defining a Workflow Exercise
      9. Defining a Workflow Debrief
    3. 4.3 Defect Report Information
      1. Defect Data and Classifications to Collect
      2. Consistency and Criticality of Information
      3. Example: Classification
      4. HELLOCARMS Defect Information Exercise
      5. HELLOCARMS Defect Information Debrief
    4. 4.4 Assessing Process Capability with Defect Report Information
      1. Example: Defect Closure over Time
    5. 4.5 Sample Exam Questions
  10. 5 Improving the Testing Process
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Test Improvement Process
      1. Types of Process Improvement
    3. 5.3 Improving the Testing Process
      1. IDEAL
      2. Example: Recommendations for Improvement
    4. 5.4 Improving the Testing Process with TMMi
    5. 5.5 Improving the Testing Process with TPI Next
    6. 5.6 Improving the Testing Process with CTP
    7. 5.7 Improving the Testing Process with STEP
      1. HELLOCARMS Test Improvement Exercise
      2. HELLOCARMS Test Improvement Debrief
    8. 5.8 Sample Exam Questions
  11. 6 Test Tools and Automation
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Tool Selection
      1. Open-Source Tools
      2. Example: Integrated Test Architecture
      3. Custom Tools
      4. Example: IVR Testing Tool
      5. Tool Cost-Benefit Analysis
      6. Tool Costs
      7. Tool Risks
      8. Tool Benefits
      9. Perspectives on Tools
      10. Tool Selection Process
      11. Example: Objectives for Unit Test Tool
      12. HELLOCARMS Tool Selection Exercise
      13. HELLOCARMS Tool Selection Debrief
    3. 6.3 Tool Lifecycle
      1. Example: Test Implementation Road Map
    4. 6.4 Tool Metrics
      1. Types of Tool Metrics
      2. Example: Tool Metrics
    5. 6.5 Sample Exam Questions
  12. 7 People Skills – Team Composition
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Individual Skills
      1. User Skills
      2. Software Development Knowledge
      3. Testing Skills
      4. Test Manager Skills
      5. Interpersonal Skills
      6. Skills Assessment
      7. Skills Inventory and Management
      8. Hiring People
      9. Gap Analysis
      10. Gap Analysis Using Inventory
      11. HELLOCARMS Team Skills Exercise
      12. HELLOCARMS Team Skills Debrief
    3. 7.3 Test Team Dynamics
      1. Staff Selection
      2. Assessing Skills, Hard and Soft
      3. Onboarding New Hires
      4. Dealing with Pressure
      5. Building a Self-Directing Team
      6. Example: Friends and Family Beta Test
      7. HELLOCARMS Team Gap Analysis Exercise
      8. HELLOCARMS Team Gap Analysis Debrief
    4. 7.4 Fitting Testing within an Organization
      1. On Using Different Mixes of Independence
      2. Example: Mixed QA Independence Options
    5. 7.5 Motivation
      1. Example: Real Quotes from Real Projects
    6. 7.6 Communication
      1. Test Manager Audience
      2. Mastering Test Manager Communication
      3. Example: Acceptance Test Status Email
    7. 7.7 Sample Exam Questions
  13. 8 Preparing for the Exam
    1. 8.1 Learning Objectives
    2. 8.2 ISTQB Advanced Exams
    3. 8.3 On the Structure of the Exams
  14. Bibliography
    1. Referenced Books
    2. Other References
  15. HELLOCARMS The Next Generation of Home Equity Lending System Requirements Document
    1. I Table of Contents
    2. II Versioning
    3. III Glossary
    4. 000 Introduction
    5. 001 Informal Use Case
    6. 003 Scope
    7. 004 System Business Benefits
    8. 010 Functional System Requirements
    9. 020 Reliability System Requirements
    10. 030 Usability System Requirements
    11. 040 Efficiency System Requirements
    12. 050 Maintainability System Requirements
    13. 060 Portability System Requirements
    14. A Acknowledgement
  16. Correct Answers to Sample Exam Questions
    1. CHAPTER 1
    2. CHAPTER 2
    3. CHAPTER 3
    4. CHAPTER 4
    5. CHAPTER 5
    6. CHAPTER 6
    7. CHAPTER 7
  17. Footnotes
    1. 1 Testing Process
    2. 2 Test Management
    3. 3 Reviews
    4. 4 Defect Management
    5. 5 Improving the Testing Process
    6. 6 Test Tools and Automation
    7. 7 People Skills – Team Composition