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Advanced Signal Integrity For High-Speed Digital Designs

Book Description

A synergistic approach to signal integrity for high-speed digital design

This book is designed to provide contemporary readers with an understanding of the emerging high-speed signal integrity issues that are creating roadblocks in digital design. Written by the foremost experts on the subject, it leverages concepts and techniques from non-related fields such as applied physics and microwave engineering and applies them to high-speed digital design—creating the optimal combination between theory and practical applications.

Following an introduction to the importance of signal integrity, chapter coverage includes:

  • Electromagnetic fundamentals for signal integrity

  • Transmission line fundamentals

  • Crosstalk

  • Non-ideal conductor models, including surface roughness and frequency-dependent inductance

  • Frequency-dependent properties of dielectrics

  • Differential signaling

  • Mathematical requirements of physical channels

  • S-parameters for digital engineers

  • Non-ideal return paths and via resonance

  • I/O circuits and models

  • Equalization

  • Modeling and budgeting of timing jitter and noise

  • System analysis using response surface modeling

  • Each chapter includes many figures and numerous examples to help readers relate the concepts to everyday design and concludes with problems for readers to test their understanding of the material. Advanced Signal Integrity for High-Speed Digital Designs is suitable as a textbook for graduate-level courses on signal integrity, for programs taught in industry for professional engineers, and as a reference for the high-speed digital designer.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title page
    3. Preface
    4. 1: Introduction: The Importance of Signal Integrity
      1. 1.1 Computing Power: Past and Future
      2. 1.2 The Problem
      3. 1.3 THE BASICS
      4. 1.4 A NEW REALM OF BUS DESIGN
      5. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE BOOK
      6. 1.6 SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
    5. 2: ELECTROMAGNETIC FUNDAMENTALS FOR SIGNAL INTEGRITY
      1. 2.1 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
      2. 2.2 COMMON VECTOR OPERATORS
      3. 2.3 WAVE PROPAGATION
      4. 2.4 ELECTROSTATICS
      5. 2.5 MAGNETOSTATICS
      6. 2.6 POWER FLOW AND THE POYNTING VECTOR
      7. 2.7 REFLECTIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
      8. REFERENCES
      9. PROBLEMS
    6. 3: IDEAL TRANSMISSION-LINE FUNDAMENTALS
      1. 3.1 TRANSMISSION-LINE STRUCTURES
      2. 3.2 WAVE PROPAGATION ON LOSS-FREE TRANSMISSION LINES
      3. 3.3 TRANSMISSION-LINE PROPERTIES
      4. 3.4 TRANSMISSION-LINE PARAMETERS FOR THE LOSS-FREE CASE
      5. 3.5 TRANSMISSION-LINE REFLECTIONS
      6. 3.6 TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS
    7. 4: CROSSTALK
      1. 4.1 MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE
      2. 4.2 COUPLED WAVE EQUATIONS
      3. 4.3 COUPLED LINE ANALYSIS
      4. 4.4 MODAL ANALYSIS
      5. 4.5 CROSSTALK MINIMIZATION
      6. 4.6 SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS
    8. 5: NONIDEAL CONDUCTOR MODELS
      1. 5.1 SIGNALS PROPAGATING IN UNBOUNDED CONDUCTIVE MEDIA
      2. 5.2 CLASSIC CONDUCTOR MODEL FOR TRANSMISSION LINES
      3. 5.3 SURFACE ROUGHNESS
      4. 5.4 TRANSMISSION-LINE PARAMETERS FOR NONIDEAL CONDUCTORS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. PROBLEMS
    9. 6: ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF DIELECTRICS
      1. 6.1 POLARIZATION OF DIELECTRICS
      2. 6.2 CLASSIFICATION OF DIELECTRIC MATERIALS
      3. 6.3 FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR
      4. 6.4 PROPERTIES OF A PHYSICAL DIELECTRIC MODEL
      5. 6.5 FIBER-WEAVE EFFECT
      6. 6.6 ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATION IN DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR
      7. 6.7 TRANSMISSION-LINE PARAMETERS FOR LOSSY DIELECTRICS AND REALISTIC CONDUCTORS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. PROBLEMS
    10. 7: DIFFERENTIAL SIGNALING
      1. 7.1 REMOVAL OF COMMON-MODE NOISE
      2. 7.2 DIFFERENTIAL CROSSTALK
      3. 7.3 VIRTUAL REFERENCE PLANE
      4. 7.4 PROPAGATION OF MODAL VOLTAGES
      5. 7.5 COMMON TERMINOLOGY
      6. 7.6 DRAWBACKS OF DIFFERENTIAL SIGNALING
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS
    11. 8: MATHEMATICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PHYSICAL CHANNELS
      1. 8.1 FREQUENCY-DOMAIN EFFECTS IN TIME-DOMAIN SIMULATIONS
      2. 8.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR A PHYSICAL CHANNEL
      3. REFERENCES
      4. PROBLEMS
    12. 9: NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR DIGITAL ENGINEERS
      1. 9.1 HIGH-FREQUENCY VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVES
      2. 9.2 NETWORK THEORY
      3. 9.3 PROPERTIES OF PHYSICAL S-PARAMETERS
      4. REFERENCES
      5. PROBLEMS
    13. 10: TOPICS IN HIGH-SPEED CHANNEL MODELING
      1. 10.1 CREATING A PHYSICAL TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL
      2. 10.2 NONIDEAL RETURN PATHS
      3. 10.3 VIAS
      4. REFERENCES
      5. PROBLEMS
    14. 11: I/O CIRCUITS AND MODELS
      1. 11.1 I/O DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
      2. 11.2 PUSH-PULL TRANSMITTERS
      3. 11.3 CMOS RECEIVERS
      4. 11.4 ESD PROTECTION CIRCUITS
      5. 11.5 ON-CHIP TERMINATION
      6. 11.6 BERGERON DIAGRAMS
      7. 11.7 OPEN-DRAIN TRANSMITTERS
      8. 11.8 DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT-MODE TRANSMITTERS
      9. 11.9 LOW-SWING AND DIFFERENTIAL RECEIVERS
      10. 11.10 IBIS MODELS
      11. 11.11 SUMMARY
      12. REFERENCES
      13. PROBLEMS
    15. 12: EQUALIZATION
      1. 12.1 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN BACKGROUND
      2. 12.2 CONTINUOUS-TIME LINEAR EQUALIZERS
      3. 12.3 DISCRETE LINEAR EQUALIZERS
      4. 12.4 DECISION FEEDBACK EQUALIZATION
      5. 12.5 SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. PROBLEMS
    16. 13: MODELING AND BUDGETING OF TIMING JITTER AND NOISE
      1. 13.1 EYE DIAGRAM
      2. 13.2 BIT ERROR RATE
      3. 13.3 JITTER SOURCES AND BUDGETS
      4. 13.4 NOISE SOURCES AND BUDGETS
      5. 13.5 PEAK DISTORTION ANALYSIS METHODS
      6. 13.6 SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. PROBLEMS
    17. 14: SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING RESPONSE SURFACE MODELING
      1. 14.1 MODEL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
      2. 14.2 CASE STUDY: 10-GB/S DIFFERENTIAL PCB INTERFACE
      3. 14.3 RSM CONSTRUCTION BY LEAST SQUARES FITTING
      4. 14.4 MEASURES OF FIT
      5. 14.5 SIGNIFICANCE TESTING
      6. 14.6 CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
      7. 14.7 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
      8. 14.8 DEFECT RATE PREDICTION USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
      9. 14.9 ADDITIONAL RSM CONSIDERATIONS
      10. 14.10 SUMMARY
      11. REFERENCES
      12. PROBLEMS
    18. APPENDIX A: USEFUL FORMULAS, IDENTITIES, UNITS, AND CONSTANTS
    19. APPENDIX B: FOUR-PORT CONVERSIONS BETWEEN T- AND S-PARAMETERS
    20. APPENDIX C: CRITICAL VALUES OF THE F-STATISTIC
    21. APPENDIX D: CRITICAL VALUES OF THE T-STATISTIC
    22. APPENDIX E: CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SKIN EFFECT RESISTANCE AND INTERNAL INDUCTANCE FOR ROUGH CONDUCTORS
    23. APPENDIX F: SPICE LEVEL 3 MODEL FOR 0.25 μM MOSIS PROCESS
    24. INDEX